Amalgamation Process Gold

The processing of gold-making Amalgamation is a process of extraction of gold in rocks containing the gold content of ore by using a chemical binder Mercury (Hg) as a catcher ore minerals. This amalgam process is the most simple and cheapest is usually used by small-scale miners, but on a large scale is not very effective and very expensive.

The use of mercury in amalgam process was first used in 1828, despite the widespread use of new techniques is prevented due to the toxic nature of mercury. Around 1895, experiments conducted by GV Black showed that amalgam is safe to use, although 100 years later, scientists are still debating.

In the  Process Of Amalgamation is a common tool used is the drum machine as a means of smoothing the rock minerals and metals by mercury capture elements in rocks that are processed. This process is a process of chemical physics, product formed is the bond between the gold-silver and mercury are known as amalgam (Au - Hg).

Mercury will form amalgams with all metals except iron and platinum. when the amalgam is heated, it will break down into elements of mercury and alloy. Amalgam can be decomposed by heating in a retort, the mercury will evaporate and can be recovered from the condensation of mercury vapor. While the Au-Ag still remained in the retort as a metal.
      Extraction Of Gold in the Process Of Amalgamation will be effective on the liberation of gold that were wholly or partly on particle size greater than 200 mesh (0074 mm) and in the form of pure gold that is free. The success of the processing of gold by amalgamation system is determined by the condition of metallic minerals from the ore in the pulp and conditions though. 

Conditions that cause ugly gold metal grains can not be wetted by mercury and can be divided into fine particles so that the process of amalgamation does not take place perfectly. Gold grains derived from primary gold ore is not oxidized is usually clean and shiny is good to get into the mercury in the process of amalgamation. 

And another thing to consider in this process is the element content of the oil carried by the ore is very disturbing in the process of amalgamation and can break down the content of mercury, so that mercury will be small grains and is often carried away by the tailings. Oil contamination can also be caused by oil from machine tools. If the oil spill to occur on mineral ore, it can be done roasting minerals that will advance the process. Or can also add cement or lime.

How The Gold Amalgamation Process

The amalgamation process gold is a very simple process from the processing of gold, that is by way of mixing between mineral rocks of gold and mercury (Hg). Amalgamation technique performed by mixing rocks containing metallic gold and mercury by a drum machine tools. Amalgamation of gold processing techniques are mostly done by small scale miners and simple. In processing system that uses gold amalgamation technique is desperately needed water, where the function is to separate the water between the rocks that have been refined and amalgam, which will result from amalgam mud in the pool will be at capacity reservoirs.

Some simple steps that are used in gold processing system amalgamation with drum machines are as follows:
  • Destruction of rocks from the mining conducted to obtain a smaller-sized rocks. Size obtained is usually ± 20mm. machine used is a machine or Stone Crusher Hammer Mill or Crusher Jaws 
  • Rocks that have been destroyed then in put in drum machine with a capacity of drum machine used. In order to rarefaction and binding of the metal content of gold by mercury can then be left up to a quarter of the capacity of drum machine used. After all the rock mineral inserted it inside the drum machine was added to the water a quarter of the above rocks are included.

  • After all is ready for mashed inside the drum machine can be closed up tightly so that no liquid water in the machine until it comes out. Then let the mill running until approximately 4 hours or 5 hours. Until all the soft rock material such as flour. 
  • After all the rocks are soft, then the mercury can be inserted into the drum machine, then run the machine back to the time between 2 hours. To 25 kg of material processed mineral rocks better use of mercury 2 kg 
  • After all completed then all the mud from inside the drum machine is issued and placed in a large tub and on the inside of the drum machine can be sprayed with water, so that the remains of mud and Mercury are still attached to really clean the drum machine

  • Then the mud bath that contains you fill with water until it is completely full and overflowing from the tub of mud mixed with water will flow into the storage pool, whereas the binding of mercury amalgam will settle to the bottom surface of the tub. The addition of water is continuously performed very well, because when mud is thickened mercury can be carried away by the thickened sludge  

  • Amalgam that has been generated can then be filtered and squeezed using a parachute cloth until all the mercury out of the parachute fabric, it will produce the mineral content of ores that have tied up with mercury. Amalgam that has been generated and then decomposed into elements of mercury in gold bullion by heating the distillation because mercury will evaporate and be recouped to the condensation of mercury vapor that can be reused.    
Besides the distillation is another method that can be used to separate between the amalgam and mercury amalgam is by dissolving with nitric acid obtained by transformation of the reaction as follows:
HgAu 2HNO3 + -> Hg (NO3) + H2 + Au
Occurred after the deposition of gold in the form of foam, conducted separation nitrate solution. Mercury can be taken by the displacement of copper ions or other metal ions that have a more negative electrode potential of the mercury, by the reaction:

Hg (NO3) 2 + Cu -> Cu (NO3) 2 + Hg

Noteworthy in this method is contained in the silver content of mercury can reduce the infiltration. Periodically need to be done purification by distillation.
  • The results of the distillation process that has been split between the metal containing gold with mercury it can be readily Processed Fusion.From the distillation of amalgam can then be directly smelted and made ​​into a metal, and of course there are mineral deposits of silver and copper metal.
Furthermore, the solution in the form of mud that has been deposited in the pool, when it has dried transported to re-processed using the Cyanide (NaCN), Because of the efficiency of processing the results of amalgamation technique can only reach 60%.

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