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Showing posts with label COPPER. Show all posts
Showing posts with label COPPER. Show all posts

What do we know about metallurgy? Metallurgy is branch of science that deals with the procedures used when extracting metals from ores, purifying and alloying them. This also involves the study of the procedures used when making objects out of metals. Yet, to be able to understand fully all about metallurgy, it would be better to have a short glimpse of the history of metallurgy.

One of the oldest processes of applied science is the process of metallurgy. Its history would give us a good view of how the process developed and its association with metals. The history of metallurgy occurred around 7,000 BC which what they call the age of copper. It is the period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age which could also be considered the turning point between Stone to Metal. 

The first process was purely accidental when the copper enter into the fireplace campfire hot. Obviously, the copper melted and when it cooled people noticed the change of its shape. The development of the process was also contributed by the magic of the fire. We could learn from the history of metallurgy that people in the old days relied on the fire for the metal processing 

In the 2800 BC comes the Bronze Age which is another development in metallurgy. People have become brilliant that they made an alloy of copper and tin since both was commonly found in the same ore. Which results bronze and bronze has become a commodity was used for the weapons of the armies as well as used as money for trade. 

In the 1500 BC, another breakthrough was found in metallurgy. It is the discovery of iron which was considered the most abundant metal in the earth but was difficult to extract.

By this then, in the 11th century, people pushed their luck and tried to heat the iron with charcoal in such a way that the carbon from the charcoal can be transferred to the iron.

With this, the metal would be hardened and the Age of Steel came. Yet, iron has become a continuous challenge to most metallurgists since it’s very hard which can only be hammered but can’t be melted. In the 513 BC, Chinese were able to think of a furnace strong enough to heat iron.

Metals nowadays are a commodity. From the buildings, the houses, to the littlest tools we use everyday; the magic of metals is involved. Without them, everything wouldn’t be that easy. One after another, metals have developed and evolved. Over the years, people never stopped adding bits to the history of metallurgy making way for the metals to be obviously useful and one of the most important things in our daily lives nowadays.


Video Metallurgy In Mining Old Kennecott Smelter Utah

Metallurgy In Mining Video


What do we know about metallurgy? Metallurgy is branch of science that deals with the procedures used when extracting metals from ores, purifying and alloying them. This also involves the study of the procedures used when making objects out of metals. Yet, to be able to understand fully all about metallurgy, it would be better to have a short glimpse of the history of metallurgy.

One of the oldest processes of applied science is the process of metallurgy. Its history would give us a good view of how the process developed and its association with metals. The history of metallurgy occurred around 7,000 BC which what they call the age of copper. It is the period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age which could also be considered the turning point between Stone to Metal. 

The first process was purely accidental when the copper enter into the fireplace campfire hot. Obviously, the copper melted and when it cooled people noticed the change of its shape. The development of the process was also contributed by the magic of the fire. We could learn from the history of metallurgy that people in the old days relied on the fire for the metal processing 

In the 2800 BC comes the Bronze Age which is another development in metallurgy. People have become brilliant that they made an alloy of copper and tin since both was commonly found in the same ore. Which results bronze and bronze has become a commodity was used for the weapons of the armies as well as used as money for trade. 

In the 1500 BC, another breakthrough was found in metallurgy. It is the discovery of iron which was considered the most abundant metal in the earth but was difficult to extract.

By this then, in the 11th century, people pushed their luck and tried to heat the iron with charcoal in such a way that the carbon from the charcoal can be transferred to the iron.

With this, the metal would be hardened and the Age of Steel came. Yet, iron has become a continuous challenge to most metallurgists since it’s very hard which can only be hammered but can’t be melted. In the 513 BC, Chinese were able to think of a furnace strong enough to heat iron.

Metals nowadays are a commodity. From the buildings, the houses, to the littlest tools we use everyday; the magic of metals is involved. Without them, everything wouldn’t be that easy. One after another, metals have developed and evolved. Over the years, people never stopped adding bits to the history of metallurgy making way for the metals to be obviously useful and one of the most important things in our daily lives nowadays.


Video Metallurgy In Mining Old Kennecott Smelter Utah

Froth Flotation Process Of Copper Ore

Copper came from most of the continents in the world. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). To get the copper content of the ore, then need a copper extraction process which consists of a series of chemical processes, physical, and a process by means of electrochemical. The extraction process can be done by froth flotation process of copper ore, because it is considered a very practical way in the copper mining industry

Froth flotation process is considered the most widely used method for ore beneficiation. In copper ore flotation is a precious mineral separation process from of ingredients worthless or other valuable minerals by a induce process the mineral ore, so that ore minerals can accumulate and be on the surface of the foam.

Video of the copper flotation process in this below is a separation process   the copper minerals at the mill using froth flotation.


Froth Flotation Process Of Copper Ore Video

Froth Flotation Process Of Copper Ore

Copper came from most of the continents in the world. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). To get the copper content of the ore, then need a copper extraction process which consists of a series of chemical processes, physical, and a process by means of electrochemical. The extraction process can be done by froth flotation process of copper ore, because it is considered a very practical way in the copper mining industry

Froth flotation process is considered the most widely used method for ore beneficiation. In copper ore flotation is a precious mineral separation process from of ingredients worthless or other valuable minerals by a induce process the mineral ore, so that ore minerals can accumulate and be on the surface of the foam.

Video of the copper flotation process in this below is a separation process   the copper minerals at the mill using froth flotation.



Mining Operation In Copper Mountain Mine
Copper Mountain is an open pit porphyry (Alkalic)  copper mine in Canada .  Production target in  2014 The Mining Process at Copper Mountain Mine is 80 million pounds to 90 million pounds of copper as the main product, plus gold and silver as an additional product. The mining property and associated permits are under Similco Mines, a wholly owned subsidiary of Copper Mountain Mining Corporation (TSX:CUM) mining company based in Canada. Company focused on adding value through successful exploration, project development, efficient operations, and opportunistic acquisitions. Copper Mountain Mine owned by Copper Mountain Mining Corporation with 75% and 25% from Mitsubishi Materials Corporation

The Mining Process At Copper Mountain Mine ( Video )

Mining Operation In Copper Mountain Mine
Copper Mountain is an open pit porphyry (Alkalic)  copper mine in Canada .  Production target in  2014 The Mining Process at Copper Mountain Mine is 80 million pounds to 90 million pounds of copper as the main product, plus gold and silver as an additional product. The mining property and associated permits are under Similco Mines, a wholly owned subsidiary of Copper Mountain Mining Corporation (TSX:CUM) mining company based in Canada. Company focused on adding value through successful exploration, project development, efficient operations, and opportunistic acquisitions. Copper Mountain Mine owned by Copper Mountain Mining Corporation with 75% and 25% from Mitsubishi Materials Corporation



Copper extraction techniques refers to the methods for obtaining copper from its ores. The method used to extract Copper Ore depends on the nature of the mineral ore. Sulphide ores such as chalcopyrite are converted to copper by a different method from silicate, carbonate or sulphate ores.

Copper can be extracted from non-sulfide ores by a different process . Reaction of the ore (over quite a long time and on a huge scale) with a dilute acid such as dilute sulfuric acid to produce a very dilute copper sulfate solution.

Test Of Copper Ore With Sulfuric Acid ( H2SO4 ) Videos


Copper extraction techniques refers to the methods for obtaining copper from its ores. The method used to extract Copper Ore depends on the nature of the mineral ore. Sulphide ores such as chalcopyrite are converted to copper by a different method from silicate, carbonate or sulphate ores.

Copper can be extracted from non-sulfide ores by a different process . Reaction of the ore (over quite a long time and on a huge scale) with a dilute acid such as dilute sulfuric acid to produce a very dilute copper sulfate solution.



      Pyrometallurgy, or smelting, usually used in the smelting process of copper ore with sulfide and iron sulfide minerals. The concentrate is dried and fed into a furnace. The minerals are partially oxidized and melted, resulting in segregated layers.

Matte coating refers to a mixture of the iron sulfide-copper sinks to the bottom. The slag, which refers to the remaining impurities, floats on top of the matte. The slag is discarded on site or sold as railroad ballast and sand blasting grit. Sulfur dioxide gases are also collected and made into sulfuric acid for use in hydrometallurgical leaching (discussed below) or sold off-site.

Step By Step Copper Smelting Process In Palabora Mines South Africa

Step By Step Copper Smelting Process In Palabora Mines


      Pyrometallurgy, or smelting, usually used in the smelting process of copper ore with sulfide and iron sulfide minerals. The concentrate is dried and fed into a furnace. The minerals are partially oxidized and melted, resulting in segregated layers.

Matte coating refers to a mixture of the iron sulfide-copper sinks to the bottom. The slag, which refers to the remaining impurities, floats on top of the matte. The slag is discarded on site or sold as railroad ballast and sand blasting grit. Sulfur dioxide gases are also collected and made into sulfuric acid for use in hydrometallurgical leaching (discussed below) or sold off-site.

Step By Step Copper Smelting Process In Palabora Mines South Africa

      The Palabora copper mine in South Africa is one of the largest copper mines in the world. Copper production process in palabora mine south africa operates in accordance with the guidelines of the company, structured on human rights, corporate governance, environmental management, corporate citizenship and business ethics - as it is consistent with regulatory requirements, relevant and leading industry practices. The guidelines in this Palabora mining defined, approved and supervised by the company's board of directors. Palabora mine seeks to implement both the letter and the spirit of these guidelines for all areas of business.

      Subsurface mining activities in Palabora copper mine continue as planned The use of modern communication technologies open on southern Africa Palabora mining operations have resulted in huge cost savings in installation, hardware and engineering. In addition, many of the benefits derived from the functional advantages of digital communication. For example, all the diagnostic data can now be transferred directly from the field into the control room of mining operations. This increases reliability and significantly reduce plant downtime. Extensive diagnostic functions enable preventative maintenance and service work coordinated. A particular advantage is that the operation and configuration of field devices from different manufacturers in a network Profibus-PA can be done over the network with a single engineering tool (Commuwin from Endress and Hauser).
      Copper production process in palabora mine south africa Since 2003  , use two flotation plants for to copper production process from the autogenous mills in series to boost recovery from higher grade underground ore. Slurry that has not arrived at the final froth concentrate forms the feed to the magnetic separation plant. Transition to underground mining at the mine Palabora has allowed 50,000 tpd of conventional crushing, grinding and flotation capacity. Copper and magnetite recovered on behalf of Foskor (neighboring mining company) by toll processing 20,000 tpd of marginal ore stock of mining operations in the open Palabora. The conventional process route is also applied to underground ore available in excess of autogenous milling capacity.


Copper Production Process In Palabora Mine South Africa

      The Palabora copper mine in South Africa is one of the largest copper mines in the world. Copper production process in palabora mine south africa operates in accordance with the guidelines of the company, structured on human rights, corporate governance, environmental management, corporate citizenship and business ethics - as it is consistent with regulatory requirements, relevant and leading industry practices. The guidelines in this Palabora mining defined, approved and supervised by the company's board of directors. Palabora mine seeks to implement both the letter and the spirit of these guidelines for all areas of business.

      Subsurface mining activities in Palabora copper mine continue as planned The use of modern communication technologies open on southern Africa Palabora mining operations have resulted in huge cost savings in installation, hardware and engineering. In addition, many of the benefits derived from the functional advantages of digital communication. For example, all the diagnostic data can now be transferred directly from the field into the control room of mining operations. This increases reliability and significantly reduce plant downtime. Extensive diagnostic functions enable preventative maintenance and service work coordinated. A particular advantage is that the operation and configuration of field devices from different manufacturers in a network Profibus-PA can be done over the network with a single engineering tool (Commuwin from Endress and Hauser).
      Copper production process in palabora mine south africa Since 2003  , use two flotation plants for to copper production process from the autogenous mills in series to boost recovery from higher grade underground ore. Slurry that has not arrived at the final froth concentrate forms the feed to the magnetic separation plant. Transition to underground mining at the mine Palabora has allowed 50,000 tpd of conventional crushing, grinding and flotation capacity. Copper and magnetite recovered on behalf of Foskor (neighboring mining company) by toll processing 20,000 tpd of marginal ore stock of mining operations in the open Palabora. The conventional process route is also applied to underground ore available in excess of autogenous milling capacity.



     

      Palabora Mining is located at 360km north east of Pretoria, close to Kruger National Park, Palabora Mining in South Africa's leading copper producer and also a major source of vermiculite and baddeleyite (zirconium oxide). Palabora Mining Company was founded in South Africa in August 1956. The mining company is owned and managed by Rio Tinto. 57.7% owned by Rio Tinto and Anglo American has a stake of 16.8%. On September 5, 2012, both mining companies have announced their intention to sell their respective interests in Palabora mining. And on December 11, 2012, Rio Tinto announced that it reached an agreement with a consortium of sales that are committed to sustainable management continuously in mining bound Palabora. The consortium is made up of the South African state and the Chinese state entities led by the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) of South Africa Limited and China's Hebei Iron & Steel Group. The sale agreement was concluded in July 2013, and the company name changed from Palabora to Palabora Copper Mining Company (Pty) Limited.
     
      Palabora mine containing magnetite, vermiculite, apatite, zirconium, titanium and uranium and copper. Mineral deposits in a complex consisting of alkali pyroxenite especially frozen by events pegmatites, foskorite and carbonatite. Three separate mineralized zones have been identified in surface outcrop 20km² complex of phosphate-rich northern and central (Loolekop) zones form the basis for the production of copper in this Palabora mining. Copper mineral ore that is channeled into the carbonatite pipe where the value is usually concentric with the highest value (1.0% copper) at its core. High grade copper mineralization extends in the middle of the end of the projection on the floor of the open pit mine.

Palabora Mining South Africa

     

      Palabora Mining is located at 360km north east of Pretoria, close to Kruger National Park, Palabora Mining in South Africa's leading copper producer and also a major source of vermiculite and baddeleyite (zirconium oxide). Palabora Mining Company was founded in South Africa in August 1956. The mining company is owned and managed by Rio Tinto. 57.7% owned by Rio Tinto and Anglo American has a stake of 16.8%. On September 5, 2012, both mining companies have announced their intention to sell their respective interests in Palabora mining. And on December 11, 2012, Rio Tinto announced that it reached an agreement with a consortium of sales that are committed to sustainable management continuously in mining bound Palabora. The consortium is made up of the South African state and the Chinese state entities led by the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) of South Africa Limited and China's Hebei Iron & Steel Group. The sale agreement was concluded in July 2013, and the company name changed from Palabora to Palabora Copper Mining Company (Pty) Limited.
     
      Palabora mine containing magnetite, vermiculite, apatite, zirconium, titanium and uranium and copper. Mineral deposits in a complex consisting of alkali pyroxenite especially frozen by events pegmatites, foskorite and carbonatite. Three separate mineralized zones have been identified in surface outcrop 20km² complex of phosphate-rich northern and central (Loolekop) zones form the basis for the production of copper in this Palabora mining. Copper mineral ore that is channeled into the carbonatite pipe where the value is usually concentric with the highest value (1.0% copper) at its core. High grade copper mineralization extends in the middle of the end of the projection on the floor of the open pit mine.


     
      Copper is an excellent conductor of electricity. More than half of the copper consumed is used in electrical generators and motors, electrical power and lighting fixtures, electrical wiring, radio and television sets, computers and almost everything electrical. Copper also conducts heat well and is used for thin-walled copper tubing in air conditioning and refrigeration units, motor vehicle radiators, home heating systems, steam condensers etc. Copper's corrosion resistance and ease with which it can be joined make it suitable for plumbing fittings and water reticulation systems, automotive fuel lines, sea water desalination plants and hydraulic systems. The blue-green colour of treated timber is the result of copper naphthanate and copper-chrome-arsenate which have been introduced under pressure to help protect the wood from borers. Copper sulphate is used as a fungicide and as a trace element in fertilisers. Copper is used also for making coins and scientific instruments as well as in decorative applications
      The conversion of copper consists of a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors.As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). To do this, the ore is crushed. Then it must be roasted to convert sulfides to oxides, which are smelted to produce matte. Finally, it undergoes various refining processes, the final one being electrolysis.
      Meanwhile, a number of the world’s biggest mining companies appear to be placing bets on copper. Global mine production of copper increased from 2013 to 2014, with mines producing 270,000 additional tonnes last year. A rise in production volume, better grades and a number of new mines, ramp ups and expansions were enough to offset losses incurred from mine closures, lower grades and operational disruptions. Companies also combated lower yields, which accounted for two-thirds of total production losses.
      Thomson Reuters GFMS release its Annual Copper survey – Copper 2015 – in which it predicts a continuing copper surplus and a 12% fall in average copper price for the year to $5975/tonne compared with 2014.

Here’s the top 10 copper mine in the world ( copper-producing companies ) , as outlined in this year’s Thomson Reuters GFMS Copper Survey.

Top 10 Copper Mine In The World

     
      Copper is an excellent conductor of electricity. More than half of the copper consumed is used in electrical generators and motors, electrical power and lighting fixtures, electrical wiring, radio and television sets, computers and almost everything electrical. Copper also conducts heat well and is used for thin-walled copper tubing in air conditioning and refrigeration units, motor vehicle radiators, home heating systems, steam condensers etc. Copper's corrosion resistance and ease with which it can be joined make it suitable for plumbing fittings and water reticulation systems, automotive fuel lines, sea water desalination plants and hydraulic systems. The blue-green colour of treated timber is the result of copper naphthanate and copper-chrome-arsenate which have been introduced under pressure to help protect the wood from borers. Copper sulphate is used as a fungicide and as a trace element in fertilisers. Copper is used also for making coins and scientific instruments as well as in decorative applications
      The conversion of copper consists of a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors.As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). To do this, the ore is crushed. Then it must be roasted to convert sulfides to oxides, which are smelted to produce matte. Finally, it undergoes various refining processes, the final one being electrolysis.
      Meanwhile, a number of the world’s biggest mining companies appear to be placing bets on copper. Global mine production of copper increased from 2013 to 2014, with mines producing 270,000 additional tonnes last year. A rise in production volume, better grades and a number of new mines, ramp ups and expansions were enough to offset losses incurred from mine closures, lower grades and operational disruptions. Companies also combated lower yields, which accounted for two-thirds of total production losses.
      Thomson Reuters GFMS release its Annual Copper survey – Copper 2015 – in which it predicts a continuing copper surplus and a 12% fall in average copper price for the year to $5975/tonne compared with 2014.

Here’s the top 10 copper mine in the world ( copper-producing companies ) , as outlined in this year’s Thomson Reuters GFMS Copper Survey.


Copper metal is a conductor of electricity and heat tool. A good thermal and electrical conductivity is very high. Electric industry is the largest consumer of this element pure copper has a rather gentle and soft nature. So nice to use as a thermal conductor, a conductor of electricity, building materials, and various metal alloy constituents. 

Copper is also used for various purposes household appliances, to the biomedical component. Copper can also be combined with other metals to form alloys such as bronze. Iron alloys using copper as brass and bronze are very important All the coins in the U.S. and metals containing copper weapons.

Copper has widespread uses as agricultural poison and as algisida in water purification. Copper compounds such as Fehling solution is widely used in analytical chemistry tests for sugar. But we must also be careful of the nature of this toxic metal. This can occur when copper accumulate in the body due to the use of copper cookware. Elements Cu excess can damage the liver and cirrhosis spur.

COPPER

Copper metal is a conductor of electricity and heat tool. A good thermal and electrical conductivity is very high. Electric industry is the largest consumer of this element pure copper has a rather gentle and soft nature. So nice to use as a thermal conductor, a conductor of electricity, building materials, and various metal alloy constituents. 

Copper is also used for various purposes household appliances, to the biomedical component. Copper can also be combined with other metals to form alloys such as bronze. Iron alloys using copper as brass and bronze are very important All the coins in the U.S. and metals containing copper weapons.

Copper has widespread uses as agricultural poison and as algisida in water purification. Copper compounds such as Fehling solution is widely used in analytical chemistry tests for sugar. But we must also be careful of the nature of this toxic metal. This can occur when copper accumulate in the body due to the use of copper cookware. Elements Cu excess can damage the liver and cirrhosis spur.