Showing posts with label DESIGN OF TECHNICAL MINING. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DESIGN OF TECHNICAL MINING. Show all posts

Open Pit Mining Process


Opencast sometimes referred to as open cut mining, surface mining or simply open pit is extracted a mining technique that important minerals from a borrow or an open pit.

There are two types of extraction methods, commonly used in Large scale mining mineral; Open pit mining and tunnel mining or Under ground mining. Opencast mining is used when the minerals are on the surface only in the vicinity are degraded. This is especially when the soil or material covers the minerals are relatively thin and can be easily moved for mining to take place.

Shaking Table For Gold Separation Process ( Video )


Shaking table for gold separation process is the equipment used in the processing of mineral ores to separate the gold metallic minerals with other impurities. Gold dust separation process with shaking table equipment through gravity separation concentration method is in principle based on the difference of the physical properties of a mineral density. The means used in the process of separating gold of impurities by shaking table equipment utilizing media thin stream of water at the surface of the shaking table. Concentration or separation method utilizing gravity difference in the density of gold (19.3 tonnes / m3) with a density other types of minerals in the rocks (which generally range from 2.8 tonnes / m3). Because the gold mineralize material has mineral impurities or mineral carrier.

Open Pit Gold Mining Video

Blasting in open pit mine
Open-pit gold mining is the process of mining by way of excavation which was made on the surface of the soil with the aim of finding gold mineral ores and worked for the mine life. In the exposing stage and the process of mineral ore mine in open-pit gold mining, is generally carried out in the gold mining industry on a large scale which required the excavation process and move the rocks in large quantities. In the mining industry, gold obtained by isolating it from rock gold ore (extraction). According to Greenwood et al (1989), rock gold ore decent to be exploited as the gold mining industry, gold content of approximately 25 g / tonne (25 ppm).

Open-pit gold mining the have main objective of the commercial value and open mining operations undertaken with the value of the lowest possible cost in the exploitation of mineral deposits and generate maximum profit. Planning, Selection of the physical design parameters of open pit mining, scheduling program for the extraction of mineral ores is an important stage in the open-pit gold mining.

Diagram Of Gold Mining Processing

      Gold mining was first carried out in alluvial areas. Processing system is also very simple to do that is by panning using a tray, which then developed with gold mining wave table, and followed by gravity separation method using the amalgamation process with the capture of mercury. Gold exploration in the lower layers of soil to get the primary sediment deposits began in 1860 with gold using a cyanide treatment system. And in 1960 the method of processing low-grade gold began being applied, which carried out the processing system through leaching heap, this process is basically developed from gold processing system using cyanidation . Of all the gold mineral processing must go through several stages in all these stages it is absolutely live to get the desired results, as for some stages it can be underlined by the diagram below



Explanation Of The Gold Processing In A Simple Diagram Above :

Gold Panning Machine Speed Up Your Gold Processing Work

Kit includes: Mountain Goat Trommel, Desert Fox Automatic Gold Panning Machine (w/ speed control), and Trommel Transefer Kit. Speed up your gold processing work and increase gold recovery with the Mountain Goat Gold Trommel. This machine is aptly named because it can eat almost anything and is light enough to carry up a mountain! The Mountain Goat Trommel is a reverse helix system built on the same principle as the huge mining trommels used by large mining companies all over the world, but this is light and portable. It is not to be confused with gravel pit trommels, though, which are designed to classify gravels. 
The reverse helix system came from the Archimedes Screw Pump invented over 2,000 years ago by the mathematician Archimedes. Someone discovered that the pump brought up GOLD along with the water they were pumping out of the Nile river! The Mountain Goat is very efficient because the spiral riffles inside of the tube turn and bring the heavy materials up to the high end of the tube while allowing the lighter materials to flow out of the back of the tube as tailings. This system makes the trommel self-cleaning, which eliminates the need to break down for clean-up as is necessary with sluice box type equipment. Recover 50 times MORE GOLD with the Desert Fox Automatic Gold Panning Machine! With the Desert Fox, you can work concentrates down much faster. Not only will your speed increase, your gold recovery and efficiency will improve by a factor of 50. That's not a misprint! You will recover 50 times more gold with the Desert Fox than working by hand with a gold pan. More gold, less time, and a lot less work. And with the new proprietary variable speed model, you can adjust for maximum gold recovery no matter what type of material you are panning.

Drilling In Mines

Drilling is an activity or activities to make the hole using the drill unit in which the hole will be used as a place of laying explosives. Drilling is very influential in determining the outcome of fragmentation to be generated.

Geometry Of The Drilling Include :

  • Diameter Hole Shot
    Diameter of the bullet holes that are too small causing the resulting energy factor will be reduced so as not big enough to unload rocks will explode, if the diameter of the hole is too large, then shoot a hole shot is not enough to produce good fragmentation, especially on the rocks there is lots of stocky with distances at high densities. A small diameter bullet holes also provide fault or destruction of the better on the roof ladder. this corresponds to stemming, where a large fire pit then the length of stemming aka also greater due to avoid vibration and fly rock, whereas if you use a small bullet hole then the length of stemming can be reduced.
  • Shot Hole Depth

Blasting In The Mining Process

Blasting activities at the mine is one of the activities that are deemed to have a high enough risk. But that does not mean those activities can not be controlled. Process control these activities can be started from the process of mixing explosives ingredients, the process of filling the holes with explosives into explosive, stringing process and firing process. 

In this case an important role is to control the firing process. in a blasting operation was preceded by drilling in the mining that aims to make the hole shot. Bullet hole itself will be filled by the explosive advance in the content of the material or sand, called the Sub-drilling blasting is not intended to make results happen toes or bumps on the floor of the mine that resulted in heavy equipment difficult to move when loading and transportation of blasting

After condition by a series of explosives such as TNT or ANFO is equipped with nonel, we then filled covering material called stemming function withstand pressure up to the energy produced by the explosive spread of direction and control every aspect of destroying rock beside him.
Thing to consider in the process of blasting the rock properties are important:
  • Violence: Prisoners of a smooth surface to abrasion. 
  • Violence is used to measure the technical properties of the rock material.
  • Abrasiveness: Parameters that affect the wear (age) drill bit. Abrasiveness depending on the composition of rocks. Wear and tear on the drill bit is proportional to the composition of these rocks. The content of quartz in rocks is usually considered as a reliable guide to measure the wear of the drill bit (drill bit).
  • Texture: grain structure of the rocks and can be classified based on the properties of porosity, density and grain size looseness. Texture also affects the speed of drilling.
  • Structure: fractures, faults, schistosity and bedding areas of rock types, dip, strike.
  • Breaking characteristic: describe the nature of the rock when hit with a hammer. Each rock type has a specific nature and degree of damage associated with the texture, mineral composition and structure
In a rock blasting operation will achieve optimum results when the equipment and the equipment used in accordance with the method of blasting is applied. And both of these can be divided into

Mining Design With Minescape

Minescape is mine modeling software designed specifically for the mining industry. Because it uses an open architecture, Minescape can accommodate all aspects of the management of technical information on the mine site, ranging from the data recording drill holes up to production scheduling.

The very foundation of the design features Minescape is an open and extensible. Minescape environment supports multiple products with a specific function which allows to interactively create and develop models of geology and mining plan in detail and three-dimensional (3D).  

Minescape designed for use by all professionals mines such as surveyors, geologists and mine engineers. Flexibility is owned by Minescape enable it to use in short-term mine planning and long term for coal and ore mines.Minescape has a display called the Graphical Task intuitive interface (GTI). GTI provides user interface is organized according to task so that your job will be easier, more efficient, and reduces training needs.  

Minescape using client / server architecture to take full advantage of networked computer environment. Minescape follow standards Motif ® to provide a consistent look and feel of these things will push the cost of training and operations through the use of more intuitive. Currently Minescape can be operated on UNIX and NT platforms.

Blasting Mining

Blasting in mining is blasting activities are conducted for the breakdown or divorce of a material's disarray (rocks) using explosives or an explosion process. Explosives are chemical explosives meant is defined as a single chemical compound or a mixture of solid, liquid, or mixtures thereof which, if given the action of heat, impact, friction or initial explosion will experience a very rapid exothermic chemical reaction and the reaction results in part or entirely gaseous accompanied by very high heat and pressure which is chemically more stable. Heat from the gas produced detonation reaction is approximately 4000 ° C. As for the pressure, according to Langerfors and Kihlstrom (1978), could reach more than 100,000 atm or equivalent 9850 MPa (»10 000 MPa). While the energy in units of time which caused about 25,000 MW, or 5.95 million kcal / s. It should be understood that the energy is so great it's not really reflect the amount of energy stored in explosives so great, but this condition occurs due to blasting a very fast reaction, which ranges between 2500 - 7500 meters / second (m / s). Therefore, the energy force only happens a few seconds which gradually decreased with the development of rock collapse.

Classification Of Explosives

Creating A Simple Mapping of Land Gold

In any mining operation  or an exploration of mineral ore, it is very important to do a draft mapping activities  in the surrounding area will  be an exploration.where the mapping is very important in order to reduce risk and support the exploration  plan.

Because, basically, mapping activities affect the continuity of exploration. With this mapping, we can see the beginning of  the geological conditions of the working area and can see the potential resource deposits of the mineral deposits in areas that will be held exploration activities.

This mapping is usually done at the beginning of  the exploration  activities. The first step is usually done in a mapping can be done by doing an analysis through a photo presentation  by air or by using a satellite, where the presence of  the review  through the  air we can see the geographic structure and local conditions and our land that will be held survey field.


Mining is an activity Carried out either in a simple (manual) or mechanical, including Excavation, parsing, loading and transportation of minerals.

A. Mine Open ( Surface Mining )
     Open pit is an opening made ​​in the ground, aiming to take the ore and Will be allowed to Remain Open (not dumped back) During the retrieval of ore is still ongoing. To reach the ore body of the which is Generally located at depth, is required stripping / overburden (waste rock) in large numbers. Open pit mining method is an activity of extracting minerals Such as coal, ore (ore), stones and so on where workers are directly related to climate and water outside. Open pit is also Called the open-cut mining; is the mining method used to dig mineral deposits exist on a rock that or close to the surface. This method is Suitable for horizontal ore body That allows it to Produce high and has a low cost. Although stripping and trenching included into the open pit mining, strip mining but is usually used for coal mining and quarry mining associated with the production of non metallic minerals Such as dimensions of rock, rock aggregates, etc. Mining activities are under the ground surface Sometimes, even its depth can reach Hundreds of meters Such as the open-pit copper (copper mine) Bingham Canyon in Utah (USA). The main objective of the mining operation is mining the lowest possible cost so That maximum benefit is achieved. The selection and scheduling of Various design parameters in the decision-ore and overburden stripping involves technical and economic considerations are complicated. That must be taken for the optimal compromise maximizing the between economic calculation and the existence of the limiting parameters for geological and other technical considerations.

B. Underground Mine ( Mine In )
      Underground mining refers to methods of making a mineral that is done by creating a tunnel to the location of the mineral.Various kinds of metals can be retrieved through this method such as gold, copper, zinc, nickel, and lead. Because the location of reserves generally are far below ground, the entrance needs to be made to reach the location of the backup. The entrance can be divided into several: Ramp, the entrance is a spiral-shaped or circular starting from the ground surface to the depth in question. Ramp is usually used for road vehicles or heavy equipment to and from underground.
  •  Shaft, which form holes upright (vertical) were excavated from the surface into mineral reserves. Shaft is then fitted with a kind of lift that can be used to transport people, equipment, or ore
  • Adit, namely tunnel (horizontal) which is generally made the side of a hill or mountain to the location of ore.
     There are two main stages in the underground mining methods: (development) and (production). At this stage of development, all of which are excavated rock worthless. Stages of development including road construction and excavation into underground facilities other. Medium stage of production is the work of digging the ore source itself. The place is called stope ore excavated (quarry).
     With all the work carried out in underground tunnels with a length that reaches thousands of meters, it would require a special effort for the air to all corners of the tunnel. This work is a task team of mine ventilation. In addition to supplying a sufficient amount of oxygen, ventilation must also ensure that all the dirty air tools diesel exhaust and toxic gases generated by blasting can be thrown out. To force the air to flow into the tunnel, a giant fan is used with a variety of sizes and mounting techniques. To maintain the stability of the tunnel is also necessary to support the tunnel. Various methods of buffering (ground support) has been developed. Optimal buffering will support continuation of performance and safety of all workers.

Preparation Mining

         Preparation mining is an activity preliminary to the start of a series of mining activities. In preparation of this mining early stages of cleaning the area to be mined (Land Clearing) or land that will be on exploration. Land clearing is done in the area of ​​land that has been mapped by removing all trees and shrubs that grow in around the mining area for all equipment used in mining operations can easily fit into the main areas of mining areas, and of course the main factor that needs to be done is to prepare the access road construction for the transport of material toward the processing of minerals

General Definition of Basic Mining

Mining is an activity, technology, and business related to the mining industry ranging from prospecting, exploration, evaluation, mining, processing, refining, transportation, to marketing. And is a series of activities within the framework of the search for minerals that have economic value.
In Starting a mining activity there is an initial plan to achieve a target sequence of activities as well as some techniques which can basically cover the activities of prospecting, exploration, feasibility study, which is equipped with the Environmental Impact Assessment, mining and preparation (infrastructure) as well as mining facilities , health and safety, management and environmental monitoring.
Mine planning activities can be divided into 2 main parts groupings:

Method Of Minerals Exploration Stage

          An exploration activities in general, not only in the form of positive investigation and discovered signs of the place the excavated materials, but the sense of exploration that refers to the entire sequence of the work group consisting of review or prospecting in order to find the prospect of a mineral that has economic value to define additional mineral ore in a mine. In mining there are stages of exploration, which also has exploration stage of its own. These are generally aimed at the exploration stage to identify any mineral ores, the presence, size, shape, distribution, quantity, and quality of the deposit as the basis for the analysis / study the possibility of investment.
Some aspects Phasing In the Planning and Exploration Activities include :

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