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Showing posts with label GOLD MINING IN AFRICA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GOLD MINING IN AFRICA. Show all posts

Province Loba 50 meters underground Since 2001, artisanal gold mining communities have sprung up around West Africa, In many respect it resembles the gold rush of the nineteenth century.

These cities were mere fields before they came artisanal miners. His arrival created wealth and a flourishing secondary economy that drove the development of regulations, systems of land tenure, infrastructure and economic diversification.

It is fascinating to see that almost the same phenomena that occurred in the gold rush are happening again today.



Although artisanal gold mining has been active since antiquity, the sector in West Africa has grown dramatically since 2001, driven by rising gold price and the lack of alternative opportunities.

Many farmers and herdsmen have entered the sector of artisanal gold mining and now they use their profits to improve their farming activities.

In artisanal gold mining, see a direct transfer of wealth which it is unique to other products sold on the international market.


For most agricultural products, for example, those who buy in the grocery store, only a small fraction of that profit back to the small original producer, often less than 20%.

Even for social brand products, the percentage is only moderately higher. For example, the banana cooperatives receive about a dollar for 18 kilos of bananas, less than 20%. On the other hand, artisanal miners earn a minimum of 70% to 80% of the international price.

This is unheard of in other goods. Artisanal gold mining is a massive wealth from rich to poor, but also has an amplification effect.

The local secondary economy is typically five or six times larger than the primary economy, the value of gold.

Miners use their profits to pay for hardware products, mining supplies, food, clothing, transportation, communications, medicine, all things that sell local businesses and people of that service sector, in turn do the same.

Thus they are circulating gold profits, building a large and diverse local economy. Motorcycle dealers, home improvement, telecommunications, health services, infrastructure and schools often appear in cities in connection artisanal gold mines.

Mercury is one of the great problems of artisanal gold mining. Mercury is cheap and therefore affordable means for processing the gold, but it is also a deadly neurotoxin that can cause permanent damage to the nervous system, and even death.

It is also a poor extraction method, which normally gets about 40% of the gold that is in the mineral, therefore wasting resource.

Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa



Although problems like mercury poisoning, exposure to silica dust, child labor and other criminal activity may be present in artisanal mining sites around West Africa, governments often overlook the positive benefits.






Governments and the media have a history of condemnation and demonization of artisanal gold mining without really properly understand the sector without offering solutions.

However, artisanal gold mining is now universally recognized by international agencies like the UN as a development opportunity and a huge source of rural employment and wealth generation.

The modern sector of artisanal gold mining has been strong for some 40 years and because of the jobs it provides poor rural areas, it is clear that it will continue.

In fact, it is probably stronger than the industrial sector of gold mining, which it is much more susceptible to fluctuations in gold prices.

In this context, the government and industry should help artisanal gold mining to improve their environmental and social performance to allow maximize its role of reducing poverty.

Need help and support to enter the formal economy, where you can become a responsible sector and help finance a diverse and sustainable rural economy.

And this is where comes the Artisanal Gold Council (AGC). The Artisanal Gold Council is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving opportunities, the environment and health of the millions of people involved in artisanal mining and small-scale gold in the developing world, and in doing so, we are helping to improve the integrity of the entire gold sector, from small to large.

Artisanal Gold Council (AGC)
In West Africa








Video  Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa
Problems Solutions and Opportunities

Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa


Province Loba 50 meters underground Since 2001, artisanal gold mining communities have sprung up around West Africa, In many respect it resembles the gold rush of the nineteenth century.

These cities were mere fields before they came artisanal miners. His arrival created wealth and a flourishing secondary economy that drove the development of regulations, systems of land tenure, infrastructure and economic diversification.

It is fascinating to see that almost the same phenomena that occurred in the gold rush are happening again today.



Although artisanal gold mining has been active since antiquity, the sector in West Africa has grown dramatically since 2001, driven by rising gold price and the lack of alternative opportunities.

Many farmers and herdsmen have entered the sector of artisanal gold mining and now they use their profits to improve their farming activities.

In artisanal gold mining, see a direct transfer of wealth which it is unique to other products sold on the international market.


For most agricultural products, for example, those who buy in the grocery store, only a small fraction of that profit back to the small original producer, often less than 20%.

Even for social brand products, the percentage is only moderately higher. For example, the banana cooperatives receive about a dollar for 18 kilos of bananas, less than 20%. On the other hand, artisanal miners earn a minimum of 70% to 80% of the international price.

This is unheard of in other goods. Artisanal gold mining is a massive wealth from rich to poor, but also has an amplification effect.

The local secondary economy is typically five or six times larger than the primary economy, the value of gold.

Miners use their profits to pay for hardware products, mining supplies, food, clothing, transportation, communications, medicine, all things that sell local businesses and people of that service sector, in turn do the same.

Thus they are circulating gold profits, building a large and diverse local economy. Motorcycle dealers, home improvement, telecommunications, health services, infrastructure and schools often appear in cities in connection artisanal gold mines.

Mercury is one of the great problems of artisanal gold mining. Mercury is cheap and therefore affordable means for processing the gold, but it is also a deadly neurotoxin that can cause permanent damage to the nervous system, and even death.

It is also a poor extraction method, which normally gets about 40% of the gold that is in the mineral, therefore wasting resource.

Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa



Although problems like mercury poisoning, exposure to silica dust, child labor and other criminal activity may be present in artisanal mining sites around West Africa, governments often overlook the positive benefits.






Governments and the media have a history of condemnation and demonization of artisanal gold mining without really properly understand the sector without offering solutions.

However, artisanal gold mining is now universally recognized by international agencies like the UN as a development opportunity and a huge source of rural employment and wealth generation.

The modern sector of artisanal gold mining has been strong for some 40 years and because of the jobs it provides poor rural areas, it is clear that it will continue.

In fact, it is probably stronger than the industrial sector of gold mining, which it is much more susceptible to fluctuations in gold prices.

In this context, the government and industry should help artisanal gold mining to improve their environmental and social performance to allow maximize its role of reducing poverty.

Need help and support to enter the formal economy, where you can become a responsible sector and help finance a diverse and sustainable rural economy.

And this is where comes the Artisanal Gold Council (AGC). The Artisanal Gold Council is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving opportunities, the environment and health of the millions of people involved in artisanal mining and small-scale gold in the developing world, and in doing so, we are helping to improve the integrity of the entire gold sector, from small to large.

Artisanal Gold Council (AGC)
In West Africa








Video  Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa
Problems Solutions and Opportunities



The Tarkwa Gold Mine operates under leases mining with a total area of ​​approximately 20,825 hectares. Five mining leases of 18 April 1997 which cover the Tarkwa property while two mining leases acceded on 2 February 1988 to 18 June 1992 to cover the Teberebie property. The Tarkwa concession mining leases expire in 2027 and the property Teberebie mining leases expire in 2018. 

Application for renewal of mining leases has been applied to and submitted all required fees and documentation at the Minerals Commission of Ghana. There is therefore no reason to expect that this will be granted. All necessary legal mining permits and approvals is entitled in place for the Tarkwa mine lease and GFG to mine all the material covered in the lease. 

Mine infrastructure consists of six open pit there, two heap leach facilities and a CIL plant. The ore body consists of a series of sedimentary banket quartz reef units (conglomerates) of the Tarkwain system that are similar to those mined in the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa.

The operation mining at present with several reef horizon of open pits, and it is for underground mining for future potential. Tarkwa has a Mineral Resource of 15.3 million ounces of gold and a mineral reserve of 9.9 million ounces 

Location Tarkwa Gold Mine : 
Located in the south-western Ghana, Approximately 300 kilometers west of Accra , the capital of Ghana, West Africa. It approximately four kilometers west of the city Tarkwa area, which is a Nice access roads, has an established infrastructure and by a main road connecting the port of Takoradi Approximately 60 kilometers away on the Atlantic coast.

Owner Tarkwa gold mine in Africa: 
Goldfields Ghana Limited acquired the 18.9% IAMGold interest in Tarkwa now holds 90%, the remaining 10% held to Ghanaian government. 

Mineral deposit Tarkwa gold Mine :
Body Tarkwa are ore in Tarkwaian system, which forms a substantial part of the stratigraphy of the AshantiBelt in southwestern Ghana. The AshantiBelt is a northeasterly striking broadly synclinal structure consisting of Lower Proterozoic sediments and by metavolcanics and metasediments of Birimian system underlain volcanics. The contact between the Birimian and Tarkwaian is usually marked by zones of intense shearing and hosts instead of a number of significant shear gold deposits. 

Tarkwa Goldmine is dominated by the Banket Series, which are further divided in a footwall and hanging wall barren quartzite, separated by a sequence of mineralized conglomerates and quartzites gravel.

The stratigraphy of each quartzite units is well established, with auriferous reefs inter-bed with barren immature quartzites. The units thicken to the west and the current flow parameters flow from the east and northeast. 

Structurally, the Tarkwaian belt moderate wrinkles, and at least five sequences of the deformation can be detected. The original deposition occurred in a district basin environment with associated low to high angle normal faults.

Subsequent compression and folding led to development of thrust faults and reversing of previous normal faults. The final stages involved further thrusting in a southwest direction.

Mining Operations And Mineral Processing Tarkwa gold Mine In Africa:

Tarkwa North Heap Leach Phase V pad

The open pit surface operation currently uses the tabular auriferous conglomerates of four open pits – Pepe Mantraim, Teberebie, Akontansi and Kottraverchy 

Four large open pits currently exploit the stacked narrow auriferous conglomerates, similar to the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa.

The used mining methodology is highly selective. The location of the mining areas is defined by the long term planning process. The boundaries of the mines are marked out by survey and the area is cleared of bush and topsoil with a bulldozer. 

The topsoil floor is laid for rehabilitation. After clearing, reverse circulation grade control drilling is carried out and geological models constructed. The Near-term plans and forecasts are updated with this grade control information prior to the commencement of mining.

From the highest point in the pit material is free-dug or blasted with the first beam reference level. Currently drilled fresh rock and transition zones and blown up in 6 m lifts, with excavation in 3m rinds.

Fourteen excavator used to select waste from the ore, and vice versa, along the sedimentary horizons in an average accuracy of 30 cm on the roof and 20 cm on the footwall of a reef.

Pit geologists and geotechnical engineers monitor all digging and mineral material is classified as either RoM, supplied with one of two primary crusher or inferior, which is stored close to the primary crusher. The waste material to the nearest landfill is towed.

Blasting currently utilises relatively close patterns and Little diameter holes, typically a 3.4 m by 3.8 m grid with a Gap diameter of 118 mm and a powder factor of 0.75 kg / BCM. Larger diameter holes and an increased screen size will be used in the partially weathered material,  while grid sizes are reduced are used in harder material. The Little diameter holes are used to obtain, as far as possible, the integrity of the ore / waste contacts for selective mining. 

Truck allocation (Dispatching) by means of the LP-based, GPS support Modular Mining Fleet Management System. Management reporting of material movement is via an intranet-based system (MMRS), which reads the data from the modular database in which all relevant information is stored. 

Ore is processed by using conventional CIL plant, is supplied with a gyratory crusher, a SAG mill and ball mill. Gold is recovered from the solution by electro-winning and melted in an induction furnace. Current plant capacity is 13.5Mtpa, 

LoM tailings deposit made with expansion 15.5Mtpa under evaluation in 2015 of requirements for the final lift sequences in the operation TSF 1, 2 and 3 plants in a Near time and in the medium term by TSF 5 (under EPA review) and in the longer term through planned TSF 4 and 6. 

Since 1999 all ore were taken from open pit and is currently estimated at 9.8 million tonnes per year and the conditioning 12.3 Mtpa CIL. A third plant was the South heap leach facility and in December 2008 this facility closed

The ore is free milling conglomerate with negligible sulphide content. Weathering has rocks near the surface and a higher degree of weathering is associated with increased porosity and increased Heap Leach dissolution and recovery

The North Heap Leach was commissioned in 1998 to process the initial high porus ore. Phase V Heap Leach pad construction was completed in 2009 and a further three phases of Heap Leach pad construction have been accounted for in the LoM plan. 

As the mine gets deeper so the proportion of weathered ore accessible Heap Leaching decreases. This justified the construction of the CIL plant in 2004 and the subsequent expansion, in January 2009.

The CIL milling process provides a 97% recovery which is not possible when using Heap Leaching for the harder, unweathered ore, the percentage of which increases over the LoM.

The North Heap Leach employs three stages of crushing before agglomeration crush. Agglomeration includes the addition of 4 kg / t of cement on the gravel to bind the fine material and produce an agglomerate, which are stacked on the Heap Leach Pads.

After agglomeration, the ore is transferred by the conveyor and stacked on the leach pads by a stack conveyor. The heaps are irrigated with a cyanide solution which dissolves the gold as it percolates through the heaps. 

The pregnant solution on the layer is collected at geotextile that lines the base of the heaps and through a series of ponds on the adsorption / desorption / recovery (ADR) plant is pumped, where the gold adsorbed on activated carbon , removed from the carbon by acid washing, and recovered using electro winning. 

The CIL process route has a 54 x 75 Gyratory crusher that feed two crushed ore stockpiles that have a live capacity of 45,000 t (30 hours). Underneath each stockpile is a reclaim tunnel, with apron feeders that feed onto a conveyor belt, which in turn feeds the milling circuit. 

The grinding circuit consists of a SAG and ball mill crushing with recycling with the SAG mill in a closed circuit. The SAG mill has an effective grinding length of 42 with an inner diameter of 27 and 14 MW of installed capacity (2 x 7000 kW dual drive motors). 

The ball mill has an effective grinding length of 36 installed with an internal diameter of 26 and 14 MW (2 x 7000 kW dual drive motors). The grinding circuit operating at a capacity of 1490 tonnes per hour. The CIL circuit is supplied to the tank of two trains of eight tanks in series from a common leaching.

The loaded carbon passes into a 15 t acid wash column. The gold is recovered from the loaded carbon in two 15 t elution circuits. Gold is recovered from the solution by electrowinning . The gold is smelted in the CIL smelt house in an induction furnace.

Read Also :

Mineral Processing Tarkwa Gold Mine In Africa


The Tarkwa Gold Mine operates under leases mining with a total area of ​​approximately 20,825 hectares. Five mining leases of 18 April 1997 which cover the Tarkwa property while two mining leases acceded on 2 February 1988 to 18 June 1992 to cover the Teberebie property. The Tarkwa concession mining leases expire in 2027 and the property Teberebie mining leases expire in 2018. 

Application for renewal of mining leases has been applied to and submitted all required fees and documentation at the Minerals Commission of Ghana. There is therefore no reason to expect that this will be granted. All necessary legal mining permits and approvals is entitled in place for the Tarkwa mine lease and GFG to mine all the material covered in the lease. 

Mine infrastructure consists of six open pit there, two heap leach facilities and a CIL plant. The ore body consists of a series of sedimentary banket quartz reef units (conglomerates) of the Tarkwain system that are similar to those mined in the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa.

The operation mining at present with several reef horizon of open pits, and it is for underground mining for future potential. Tarkwa has a Mineral Resource of 15.3 million ounces of gold and a mineral reserve of 9.9 million ounces 

Location Tarkwa Gold Mine : 
Located in the south-western Ghana, Approximately 300 kilometers west of Accra , the capital of Ghana, West Africa. It approximately four kilometers west of the city Tarkwa area, which is a Nice access roads, has an established infrastructure and by a main road connecting the port of Takoradi Approximately 60 kilometers away on the Atlantic coast.

Owner Tarkwa gold mine in Africa: 
Goldfields Ghana Limited acquired the 18.9% IAMGold interest in Tarkwa now holds 90%, the remaining 10% held to Ghanaian government. 

Mineral deposit Tarkwa gold Mine :
Body Tarkwa are ore in Tarkwaian system, which forms a substantial part of the stratigraphy of the AshantiBelt in southwestern Ghana. The AshantiBelt is a northeasterly striking broadly synclinal structure consisting of Lower Proterozoic sediments and by metavolcanics and metasediments of Birimian system underlain volcanics. The contact between the Birimian and Tarkwaian is usually marked by zones of intense shearing and hosts instead of a number of significant shear gold deposits. 

Tarkwa Goldmine is dominated by the Banket Series, which are further divided in a footwall and hanging wall barren quartzite, separated by a sequence of mineralized conglomerates and quartzites gravel.

The stratigraphy of each quartzite units is well established, with auriferous reefs inter-bed with barren immature quartzites. The units thicken to the west and the current flow parameters flow from the east and northeast. 

Structurally, the Tarkwaian belt moderate wrinkles, and at least five sequences of the deformation can be detected. The original deposition occurred in a district basin environment with associated low to high angle normal faults.

Subsequent compression and folding led to development of thrust faults and reversing of previous normal faults. The final stages involved further thrusting in a southwest direction.

Mining Operations And Mineral Processing Tarkwa gold Mine In Africa:

Tarkwa North Heap Leach Phase V pad

The open pit surface operation currently uses the tabular auriferous conglomerates of four open pits – Pepe Mantraim, Teberebie, Akontansi and Kottraverchy 

Four large open pits currently exploit the stacked narrow auriferous conglomerates, similar to the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa.

The used mining methodology is highly selective. The location of the mining areas is defined by the long term planning process. The boundaries of the mines are marked out by survey and the area is cleared of bush and topsoil with a bulldozer. 

The topsoil floor is laid for rehabilitation. After clearing, reverse circulation grade control drilling is carried out and geological models constructed. The Near-term plans and forecasts are updated with this grade control information prior to the commencement of mining.

From the highest point in the pit material is free-dug or blasted with the first beam reference level. Currently drilled fresh rock and transition zones and blown up in 6 m lifts, with excavation in 3m rinds.

Fourteen excavator used to select waste from the ore, and vice versa, along the sedimentary horizons in an average accuracy of 30 cm on the roof and 20 cm on the footwall of a reef.

Pit geologists and geotechnical engineers monitor all digging and mineral material is classified as either RoM, supplied with one of two primary crusher or inferior, which is stored close to the primary crusher. The waste material to the nearest landfill is towed.

Blasting currently utilises relatively close patterns and Little diameter holes, typically a 3.4 m by 3.8 m grid with a Gap diameter of 118 mm and a powder factor of 0.75 kg / BCM. Larger diameter holes and an increased screen size will be used in the partially weathered material,  while grid sizes are reduced are used in harder material. The Little diameter holes are used to obtain, as far as possible, the integrity of the ore / waste contacts for selective mining. 

Truck allocation (Dispatching) by means of the LP-based, GPS support Modular Mining Fleet Management System. Management reporting of material movement is via an intranet-based system (MMRS), which reads the data from the modular database in which all relevant information is stored. 

Ore is processed by using conventional CIL plant, is supplied with a gyratory crusher, a SAG mill and ball mill. Gold is recovered from the solution by electro-winning and melted in an induction furnace. Current plant capacity is 13.5Mtpa, 

LoM tailings deposit made with expansion 15.5Mtpa under evaluation in 2015 of requirements for the final lift sequences in the operation TSF 1, 2 and 3 plants in a Near time and in the medium term by TSF 5 (under EPA review) and in the longer term through planned TSF 4 and 6. 

Since 1999 all ore were taken from open pit and is currently estimated at 9.8 million tonnes per year and the conditioning 12.3 Mtpa CIL. A third plant was the South heap leach facility and in December 2008 this facility closed

The ore is free milling conglomerate with negligible sulphide content. Weathering has rocks near the surface and a higher degree of weathering is associated with increased porosity and increased Heap Leach dissolution and recovery

The North Heap Leach was commissioned in 1998 to process the initial high porus ore. Phase V Heap Leach pad construction was completed in 2009 and a further three phases of Heap Leach pad construction have been accounted for in the LoM plan. 

As the mine gets deeper so the proportion of weathered ore accessible Heap Leaching decreases. This justified the construction of the CIL plant in 2004 and the subsequent expansion, in January 2009.

The CIL milling process provides a 97% recovery which is not possible when using Heap Leaching for the harder, unweathered ore, the percentage of which increases over the LoM.

The North Heap Leach employs three stages of crushing before agglomeration crush. Agglomeration includes the addition of 4 kg / t of cement on the gravel to bind the fine material and produce an agglomerate, which are stacked on the Heap Leach Pads.

After agglomeration, the ore is transferred by the conveyor and stacked on the leach pads by a stack conveyor. The heaps are irrigated with a cyanide solution which dissolves the gold as it percolates through the heaps. 

The pregnant solution on the layer is collected at geotextile that lines the base of the heaps and through a series of ponds on the adsorption / desorption / recovery (ADR) plant is pumped, where the gold adsorbed on activated carbon , removed from the carbon by acid washing, and recovered using electro winning. 

The CIL process route has a 54 x 75 Gyratory crusher that feed two crushed ore stockpiles that have a live capacity of 45,000 t (30 hours). Underneath each stockpile is a reclaim tunnel, with apron feeders that feed onto a conveyor belt, which in turn feeds the milling circuit. 

The grinding circuit consists of a SAG and ball mill crushing with recycling with the SAG mill in a closed circuit. The SAG mill has an effective grinding length of 42 with an inner diameter of 27 and 14 MW of installed capacity (2 x 7000 kW dual drive motors). 

The ball mill has an effective grinding length of 36 installed with an internal diameter of 26 and 14 MW (2 x 7000 kW dual drive motors). The grinding circuit operating at a capacity of 1490 tonnes per hour. The CIL circuit is supplied to the tank of two trains of eight tanks in series from a common leaching.

The loaded carbon passes into a 15 t acid wash column. The gold is recovered from the loaded carbon in two 15 t elution circuits. Gold is recovered from the solution by electrowinning . The gold is smelted in the CIL smelt house in an induction furnace.

Read Also :


Eritrea is one of the developing countries in the production of gold in Africa. Having gained its independence in 1992, the country is relatively young compared to other African countries. Eritrea has worked its natural resources for some time and now several projects to be developed. It is expected that approximately four major mines will be operational in 2018.

The country has only a commercial gold mine, mined with most of its gold from Little artisanal miners. Nearly all of the Large gold deposits remain intact.

Eritrea has a Far history of gold mining. Early gold mines in the country were artisanal miners, mined gold from gold deposits along the route of the Red Sea, especially around the Arabian Nubian Shield. As part of Empire of Ethiopia.This country never had the influence of white colonialists and so most of its resources have been discovered and mined by the locals.

The civil war with Ethiopia which led in 1992 for the independence of the country disrupted and also most of the mining activities in the country, and this could be pointed out as the main reason why the country, AEOS mining sector is the least developed.

The government in recent years has been hand in hand with foreign investors to set up and operate a strong gold mining in the country . Most of these companies are involved in exploration activities in several places are already working to develop various gold deposits. Some of the major international players in the country, AEOS gold sector include:

Junior Sub-Sahara Resources

This is an Australian company that owns Approximately 80% in three main exploration licenses in Eritrea. The company has rights to the Dabarwa block, Adi Nefas block and Medrizien block which covers Approximately 1,200km2. These are very promising grounds around the country, AEOS capital Asmara. The company is also working on developing and mining the Zara gold project, after 70% of the project of Dragon Mining NL 2003

The company recorded success in its gold projects to Asmara with significant gold mineralization having been discovered the ancient plant to the Woki Duba and Medrizien sites. Several other minerals such as zinc, have found lead sulphides and copper also in major exploration sites.

Rift These Resources
is another major gold mining companies in Eritrea. The company has been active in the last few years in gold and some other base metal exploration in several places within the country. Its principal gold project is the Adi Nefas project is located north of Asmara. Today that is projected was Approximately 4.4 g / t grading and Approximately 165 g / t silver to have appreciated. Other major projects that the company owns include Nefasit mount Subab project Tekeze field gold project and the Kefina project. The company also owns Approximately 40% of the shares in Anglo American, AEOS Augaro Gold Project.

Nevsun Resources Ltd

This is an important Africa focused gold mining company . The company has four exploration licenses on a project that covers over 1,188km2 in Augaro area. The company also owns 60% in the Bisha Mining Company with the remaining shares by the Eritrean National Mining Corporation (ENAMCO) is owned. The company mines gold, copper and zinc from several mines within the country.

Sanu Resources Inc.

This is another major gold mining companies with an interest in Eritrea, AEOS gold sector. The company grew out of the British Virginia Island and has exploration and mining licenses for Kerkebet and Gieba regions in the northern parts of the country.



Gold Mining In Eritrea Africa


Eritrea is one of the developing countries in the production of gold in Africa. Having gained its independence in 1992, the country is relatively young compared to other African countries. Eritrea has worked its natural resources for some time and now several projects to be developed. It is expected that approximately four major mines will be operational in 2018.

The country has only a commercial gold mine, mined with most of its gold from Little artisanal miners. Nearly all of the Large gold deposits remain intact.

Eritrea has a Far history of gold mining. Early gold mines in the country were artisanal miners, mined gold from gold deposits along the route of the Red Sea, especially around the Arabian Nubian Shield. As part of Empire of Ethiopia.This country never had the influence of white colonialists and so most of its resources have been discovered and mined by the locals.

The civil war with Ethiopia which led in 1992 for the independence of the country disrupted and also most of the mining activities in the country, and this could be pointed out as the main reason why the country, AEOS mining sector is the least developed.

The government in recent years has been hand in hand with foreign investors to set up and operate a strong gold mining in the country . Most of these companies are involved in exploration activities in several places are already working to develop various gold deposits. Some of the major international players in the country, AEOS gold sector include:

Junior Sub-Sahara Resources

This is an Australian company that owns Approximately 80% in three main exploration licenses in Eritrea. The company has rights to the Dabarwa block, Adi Nefas block and Medrizien block which covers Approximately 1,200km2. These are very promising grounds around the country, AEOS capital Asmara. The company is also working on developing and mining the Zara gold project, after 70% of the project of Dragon Mining NL 2003

The company recorded success in its gold projects to Asmara with significant gold mineralization having been discovered the ancient plant to the Woki Duba and Medrizien sites. Several other minerals such as zinc, have found lead sulphides and copper also in major exploration sites.

Rift These Resources
is another major gold mining companies in Eritrea. The company has been active in the last few years in gold and some other base metal exploration in several places within the country. Its principal gold project is the Adi Nefas project is located north of Asmara. Today that is projected was Approximately 4.4 g / t grading and Approximately 165 g / t silver to have appreciated. Other major projects that the company owns include Nefasit mount Subab project Tekeze field gold project and the Kefina project. The company also owns Approximately 40% of the shares in Anglo American, AEOS Augaro Gold Project.

Nevsun Resources Ltd

This is an important Africa focused gold mining company . The company has four exploration licenses on a project that covers over 1,188km2 in Augaro area. The company also owns 60% in the Bisha Mining Company with the remaining shares by the Eritrean National Mining Corporation (ENAMCO) is owned. The company mines gold, copper and zinc from several mines within the country.

Sanu Resources Inc.

This is another major gold mining companies with an interest in Eritrea, AEOS gold sector. The company grew out of the British Virginia Island and has exploration and mining licenses for Kerkebet and Gieba regions in the northern parts of the country.




Benin is an important mining country in West Africa. It is near Africa’s second largest gold producer; Ghana.It is in the same geological setting as the leading gold producer in Africa within the West African geographical formation.

Most of the gold in Benin is dominated by artisanal gold miners from the gold-Wealthy veins near the villages of Tchantangou and Kwatena in the Atakora Mountains in the Northwest region of the country. Gold has also from alluvial gold sediments from the Perma-river and its tributaries. 

Artisanal MiningMined In Benin

Not much of commercial gold mining been done in the country, but the authorities, the mining affairs in Benin, the Office Béninoise des Mines (OBEMINES) has been working with other state administration bodies of the country’s mining law with the aim of attracting foreign investment in the gold sector to revise.

Gold Mining in Benin is not new. It goes back to the pre-colonial period, was mined as alluvial gold along the rivers for the king. Most of the gold traded in the trans-Saharan trade came from rivers in present-day Benin and Ghana. 

Throughout history, the country’s alluvial gold was mined by artisanal gold mines along the rivers and in the mountains areas. Several studies have been conducted in the past to the presence of gold in the country, but limited commercial mining was started . This leaves a Large potential of gold mines to be explored in the country.

In same geographical location with some of Africa’s gold producers such as Ghana and Mali indicates that the country has great potential as a gold producer. 

Exploration Permits Are Issued

The government has received a number exploration licenses in international gold mining companies for gold exploration in the country in recent years. Most of these companies have taken the first positive results, which suggest that the country could have far more gold resources to be explored.

Quite a significant amount of gold mineralization has been discovered in two Alibori and Atacora regions. Alluvial gold contained , were also been found in several places outside these regions, so the widespread deposits. Further research is still to be determined in the commercial viability of gold resources.

Commercial Mining in Benin

Premier African Minerals Limited is an important AIM traded, natural resources and raw materials company with gold mining interests in Benin. The company, through its subsidiary G & B African Resources Benin SARL holds exploration rights in Benin. The company has an exploration license to a 249.75km2 mineral block in the eastern part of central Benin. 

The property is located Approximately 75 km north of the town of Parakou and has a great history of artisanal gold mining. Preliminary studies on the block done shows great potential of gold mineralization, although further studies are still needed before commercial gold mining can Start. 

The location of the gold property is particularly highlighted by Proterozoic gneisses migmatic. Since the early 2000s the area intermittently artisanal mining activities for tantalum and colored gemstones such as tourmaline and was seen blue beryl (aquamarine) .

The Ministry of Mining in Benin to facilitate all artisanal mining activities of mineral exploration and other commercial gold mining lately. A preliminary survey of the company based on satellite images of the license areas has identified 39 key areas for gold, tantalite and gemstones.

These objects are grouped into three bands pegmatite, one covers a length of Approximately 10 km, a second, a length of Approximately five kilometers and the third a length of Approximately three kilometers. The latter is especially potential for colored gemstones, the other two for both gold and tantalum.

Gold Mining In Benin West Africa

Benin is an important mining country in West Africa. It is near Africa’s second largest gold producer; Ghana.It is in the same geological setting as the leading gold producer in Africa within the West African geographical formation.

Most of the gold in Benin is dominated by artisanal gold miners from the gold-Wealthy veins near the villages of Tchantangou and Kwatena in the Atakora Mountains in the Northwest region of the country. Gold has also from alluvial gold sediments from the Perma-river and its tributaries. 

Artisanal MiningMined In Benin

Not much of commercial gold mining been done in the country, but the authorities, the mining affairs in Benin, the Office Béninoise des Mines (OBEMINES) has been working with other state administration bodies of the country’s mining law with the aim of attracting foreign investment in the gold sector to revise.

Gold Mining in Benin is not new. It goes back to the pre-colonial period, was mined as alluvial gold along the rivers for the king. Most of the gold traded in the trans-Saharan trade came from rivers in present-day Benin and Ghana. 

Throughout history, the country’s alluvial gold was mined by artisanal gold mines along the rivers and in the mountains areas. Several studies have been conducted in the past to the presence of gold in the country, but limited commercial mining was started . This leaves a Large potential of gold mines to be explored in the country.

In same geographical location with some of Africa’s gold producers such as Ghana and Mali indicates that the country has great potential as a gold producer. 

Exploration Permits Are Issued

The government has received a number exploration licenses in international gold mining companies for gold exploration in the country in recent years. Most of these companies have taken the first positive results, which suggest that the country could have far more gold resources to be explored.

Quite a significant amount of gold mineralization has been discovered in two Alibori and Atacora regions. Alluvial gold contained , were also been found in several places outside these regions, so the widespread deposits. Further research is still to be determined in the commercial viability of gold resources.

Commercial Mining in Benin

Premier African Minerals Limited is an important AIM traded, natural resources and raw materials company with gold mining interests in Benin. The company, through its subsidiary G & B African Resources Benin SARL holds exploration rights in Benin. The company has an exploration license to a 249.75km2 mineral block in the eastern part of central Benin. 

The property is located Approximately 75 km north of the town of Parakou and has a great history of artisanal gold mining. Preliminary studies on the block done shows great potential of gold mineralization, although further studies are still needed before commercial gold mining can Start. 

The location of the gold property is particularly highlighted by Proterozoic gneisses migmatic. Since the early 2000s the area intermittently artisanal mining activities for tantalum and colored gemstones such as tourmaline and was seen blue beryl (aquamarine) .

The Ministry of Mining in Benin to facilitate all artisanal mining activities of mineral exploration and other commercial gold mining lately. A preliminary survey of the company based on satellite images of the license areas has identified 39 key areas for gold, tantalite and gemstones.

These objects are grouped into three bands pegmatite, one covers a length of Approximately 10 km, a second, a length of Approximately five kilometers and the third a length of Approximately three kilometers. The latter is especially potential for colored gemstones, the other two for both gold and tantalum.


Togo Top mineral is mined today is phosphate, where it counts 19 in the world. That’s Beautiful impressive, consider the relatively Little size of the country. Some trust that Togo may optionally also an important gold country, the fact that it is the immediate neighbor from Ghana, Africa’s second largest gold producer.

This led to speculation that Togo Large undiscovered gold resources. Early studies have returned positive results in terms of the availability of gold in the country. This has led to increase government investment in the sector looking for gold production in the country.

History Mining In Togo

Gold Minerals And Gold Mining In Togo


Togo Top mineral is mined today is phosphate, where it counts 19 in the world. That’s Beautiful impressive, consider the relatively Little size of the country. Some trust that Togo may optionally also an important gold country, the fact that it is the immediate neighbor from Ghana, Africa’s second largest gold producer.

This led to speculation that Togo Large undiscovered gold resources. Early studies have returned positive results in terms of the availability of gold in the country. This has led to increase government investment in the sector looking for gold production in the country.

History Mining In Togo

The Gambia is one of the well known surrounding gold producer in West Africa, Senegal, on three sides and thus shares much of Senegal's geology. This makes the country very interesting for most gold investors especially if the fact that most of its natural resources have yet to be fully exploited.

Gambia contain of multiple the natural resources, gold, tin, titanium, laterite and quartz sand. This makes the country, very important for the country,Business add mining sector a significant share of GDP country,

Mining Development in Gambia

Gold Mining in Gambia, West Africa

The Gambia is one of the well known surrounding gold producer in West Africa, Senegal, on three sides and thus shares much of Senegal's geology. This makes the country very interesting for most gold investors especially if the fact that most of its natural resources have yet to be fully exploited.

Gambia contain of multiple the natural resources, gold, tin, titanium, laterite and quartz sand. This makes the country, very important for the country,Business add mining sector a significant share of GDP country,

Mining Development in Gambia



South Africa has the largest known gold reserves in the world. Estimated to be around 40000 tons, this country cradles 40-50 % of the global gold reserves. Mining is perhaps the biggest industry of South Africa, and the nation’s economy basically depends upon it, because the gold resources in South Africa is very rich

Gold Recources In South Africa


South Africa has the largest known gold reserves in the world. Estimated to be around 40000 tons, this country cradles 40-50 % of the global gold reserves. Mining is perhaps the biggest industry of South Africa, and the nation’s economy basically depends upon it, because the gold resources in South Africa is very rich




South Africa is the most advanced and richest country of Africa. It owes all its economical development to abundance of mineral resources like gold, diamond, platinum and coal etc. The country is the leading producer of precious metals such as this metal and platinum. Almost 50% of the reserves of the world are found in South Africa. South Africa was the largest gold producer and exporter till 2007, when China surpassed it. South Africa kept its title of the largest gold producer of the world for about half century.

Gold Mines In Johannesburg

History Of Gold Mining In South Africa



South Africa is the most advanced and richest country of Africa. It owes all its economical development to abundance of mineral resources like gold, diamond, platinum and coal etc. The country is the leading producer of precious metals such as this metal and platinum. Almost 50% of the reserves of the world are found in South Africa. South Africa was the largest gold producer and exporter till 2007, when China surpassed it. South Africa kept its title of the largest gold producer of the world for about half century.

Gold Mines In Johannesburg



Malawi constitute gold producing exciting new country in Africa. The county has great potential as a gold producer in view of the fact that most of its gold resources remain unexplored. Gold produced in the past in Malawi. By Little artisanal miners along the rivers However, the recent signing of gold exploration and development agreements with a number of multinational gold mines across the country is to put on the map of major gold producers in Africa.

Gold Mining In Malawi


Malawi constitute gold producing exciting new country in Africa. The county has great potential as a gold producer in view of the fact that most of its gold resources remain unexplored. Gold produced in the past in Malawi. By Little artisanal miners along the rivers However, the recent signing of gold exploration and development agreements with a number of multinational gold mines across the country is to put on the map of major gold producers in Africa.


Central African Republic one of the Foundation African relating to Mineral Resources. In fact, mining contributes Approximately 10% of the country’s GDP and Gold is the second largest after diamond resource mineral in the country. This makes the Central African Republic an important goal for any serious investor in the gold production sector.

Gold Mining In The Central African Republic


Central African Republic one of the Foundation African relating to Mineral Resources. In fact, mining contributes Approximately 10% of the country’s GDP and Gold is the second largest after diamond resource mineral in the country. This makes the Central African Republic an important goal for any serious investor in the gold production sector.


Gabon is an important mining country in Africa. Mining has been the spine of the country's economy for many years. In the past, the main mineral export country was oil, but gold discoveries are being made to change and add the country's economy

The country realized its potential of gold and other minerals to produce in the early 2000s and the Société Equatoriale des Mines (SEM), or simply to accelerate Gabon Mining exploration and mining of these minerals was one in 2011 formed by presidential decree. Since then the company has been working on four major gold projects was namely Mavenza Gold Project located in Moyen-Ogooué, the Camp 6 gold project in the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, the Kolissen gold project in the Moyen-Ogooué Province; and Lombo Bouenguidi Gold Project in Ogooué- Lolo Province.

Gold Mining And Mineral Project In Gabon


Gabon is an important mining country in Africa. Mining has been the spine of the country's economy for many years. In the past, the main mineral export country was oil, but gold discoveries are being made to change and add the country's economy

The country realized its potential of gold and other minerals to produce in the early 2000s and the Société Equatoriale des Mines (SEM), or simply to accelerate Gabon Mining exploration and mining of these minerals was one in 2011 formed by presidential decree. Since then the company has been working on four major gold projects was namely Mavenza Gold Project located in Moyen-Ogooué, the Camp 6 gold project in the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, the Kolissen gold project in the Moyen-Ogooué Province; and Lombo Bouenguidi Gold Project in Ogooué- Lolo Province.



Mauritania is an important mining industry country which located in region West Africa, with mining result which gives contributing Approximately 12 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The country has produces a number of minerals resources that include gold, copper, cement and plaster, among other minerals to be the same geological makeup as a top gold producers in the region such as Ghana, Mali and the Ivory Coast to Mauritania has the gold prospecting to become a leading gold producer in the region. The gold mining exploration activities in Mauritania most are on the Mauritanide band in the middle and the Precambrian Shield Reguibat, second such already show natural resources and the potential for gold mineralization in this country

Gold Mining Industry In Mauritania


Mauritania is an important mining industry country which located in region West Africa, with mining result which gives contributing Approximately 12 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The country has produces a number of minerals resources that include gold, copper, cement and plaster, among other minerals to be the same geological makeup as a top gold producers in the region such as Ghana, Mali and the Ivory Coast to Mauritania has the gold prospecting to become a leading gold producer in the region. The gold mining exploration activities in Mauritania most are on the Mauritanide band in the middle and the Precambrian Shield Reguibat, second such already show natural resources and the potential for gold mineralization in this country



Botswana, with its Study government, Large airport, excellent roads, and strong economic environment is place mining an excellent . And there are Nice gold deposits in the country, which have led to the establishment of several Large mines.

Most of the mining industry in the region are near the area Botswana Francistown, the second largest city in Botswana. Francistown, which is located in eastern Botswana, is located near the border with Zimbabwe, Zambia and other countries in the central part of Africa.

Gold mining In Botswana Africa


Botswana, with its Study government, Large airport, excellent roads, and strong economic environment is place mining an excellent . And there are Nice gold deposits in the country, which have led to the establishment of several Large mines.

Most of the mining industry in the region are near the area Botswana Francistown, the second largest city in Botswana. Francistown, which is located in eastern Botswana, is located near the border with Zimbabwe, Zambia and other countries in the central part of Africa.



Senegal constitude country an significant which gold producing in West Africa. Most of the gold in the country is found in Senegal-Mali structural corridor. Because of its great potential as a producer of gold, the country has attracted mining industry in recent years, international gold mining companies, have acquired the licenses of gold exploration and are currently reviewing several different regions of the country for gold.

Gold Mining And Gold Project In Senegal Africa


Senegal constitude country an significant which gold producing in West Africa. Most of the gold in the country is found in Senegal-Mali structural corridor. Because of its great potential as a producer of gold, the country has attracted mining industry in recent years, international gold mining companies, have acquired the licenses of gold exploration and are currently reviewing several different regions of the country for gold.

Gold mining In Nigeria
There are currently two gold mining companies in Nigeria. Segilola Nigeria Limited has a Gold  mining consent in Osun state, and geotechnical Nigeria Limited, has a mining consent to mine gold in Kebbi State. Five other companies are mining for tin, the iron ore mining, lead metal, zinc and coal

And deposits of gold found in the north of Nigeria. The areas where these gold deposits are found, include Tsohon region, Maru region , Iperindo region and Bin Yauri.

Gold Mining History in Nigeria


Gold mining In Nigeria ( Video )

Gold mining In Nigeria
There are currently two gold mining companies in Nigeria. Segilola Nigeria Limited has a Gold  mining consent in Osun state, and geotechnical Nigeria Limited, has a mining consent to mine gold in Kebbi State. Five other companies are mining for tin, the iron ore mining, lead metal, zinc and coal

And deposits of gold found in the north of Nigeria. The areas where these gold deposits are found, include Tsohon region, Maru region , Iperindo region and Bin Yauri.

Gold Mining History in Nigeria



   Tanzania: 4th largest gold producer in Africa


Tanzania has one of the largest undeveloped gold deposits in Africa. Currently, the country is the 4th largest gold producer in Africa. The country produces Approximately 40 tons of gold per year. This is a Large fraction of 2.8%, which contributes to the mining of the country's GDP.

It is expected that gold mining will grow in the coming years, the interests that have shown many mining companies established abroad in the country given. This is backed up by the recent change of government policy and the legal structure, as in the 1997 mining policy and the 2010 Mining Act can be seen.

Gold Mining History in Tanzania

Tanzania Gold Producer In Africa

   Tanzania: 4th largest gold producer in Africa


Tanzania has one of the largest undeveloped gold deposits in Africa. Currently, the country is the 4th largest gold producer in Africa. The country produces Approximately 40 tons of gold per year. This is a Large fraction of 2.8%, which contributes to the mining of the country's GDP.

It is expected that gold mining will grow in the coming years, the interests that have shown many mining companies established abroad in the country given. This is backed up by the recent change of government policy and the legal structure, as in the 1997 mining policy and the 2010 Mining Act can be seen.

Gold Mining History in Tanzania



Sabodala gold mine is a large-scale gold mining in the region of Senegal. Gold mining production in Sabodala began around March 2009, and the processing plant was completed in the second quarter in 2012 which makes the production of two million tons of capacity to be doubled to four million tonnes per year. Sabodala gold mine in Senegal is owned and operated by Sabodala Gold Operations (SGO)  which is a subsidiary of Teranga Gold Corporation based in Toronto, Canada with a ownership of 90% and the remaining 10% owned by the Government of the Republic of Senegal.

Sabodala Gold Mine In Senegal ( Video )


Sabodala gold mine is a large-scale gold mining in the region of Senegal. Gold mining production in Sabodala began around March 2009, and the processing plant was completed in the second quarter in 2012 which makes the production of two million tons of capacity to be doubled to four million tonnes per year. Sabodala gold mine in Senegal is owned and operated by Sabodala Gold Operations (SGO)  which is a subsidiary of Teranga Gold Corporation based in Toronto, Canada with a ownership of 90% and the remaining 10% owned by the Government of the Republic of Senegal.


Mining method in Otjikoto gold mine Namibia with Conventional open pit operations.
The Otjikoto mine is B2Gold Corp project is located in the Republic of Namibia approximately 70 km northwest of the town of Otjiwarongo and 50 km southwest of the town of Otavi within the Province of Otjozondjupa. Otjikoto mine owned is B2Gold with 90% and 10%  by EVI Mining Company, a Namibian empowerment company. Acquisitions the Otjikoto mine project by B2Gold corp through its acquisition of Auryx Gold in 2011.

Mining Operation Otjikoto By B2Gold Corp

Mining method in Otjikoto gold mine Namibia with Conventional open pit operations.
The Otjikoto mine is B2Gold Corp project is located in the Republic of Namibia approximately 70 km northwest of the town of Otjiwarongo and 50 km southwest of the town of Otavi within the Province of Otjozondjupa. Otjikoto mine owned is B2Gold with 90% and 10%  by EVI Mining Company, a Namibian empowerment company. Acquisitions the Otjikoto mine project by B2Gold corp through its acquisition of Auryx Gold in 2011.


Mining method conventional open pit mining at New Liberty mine

New Liberty mine is commercial gold mine in Liberia,  located within the Bea-MDA property, in Grand Cape Mount County in the north-western portion of the Republic of Liberia, approximately 100km north-west of the capital, Monrovia.

New Liberty mine is 100% owned by Aureus Mining inc, through its subsidiary Bear Mountain Mining Corporation,  environmental permit for the New Liberty mine was received in October 2012 and the definitive feasibility study was completed in 2013.

Construction work at New Liberty mine commenced in December 2012 and the first gold was poured in October 2013, while commercial production in New Liberty mine is expected to commence in 2014 and expected annual gold production to be 119,000 ounces (oz) for the first six years and 859,000oz over the mine life of eight and half years.

Mineralisation And Gold Deposit In New Liberty Mine Liberia

New Liberty Mine In Liberia

Mining method conventional open pit mining at New Liberty mine

New Liberty mine is commercial gold mine in Liberia,  located within the Bea-MDA property, in Grand Cape Mount County in the north-western portion of the Republic of Liberia, approximately 100km north-west of the capital, Monrovia.

New Liberty mine is 100% owned by Aureus Mining inc, through its subsidiary Bear Mountain Mining Corporation,  environmental permit for the New Liberty mine was received in October 2012 and the definitive feasibility study was completed in 2013.

Construction work at New Liberty mine commenced in December 2012 and the first gold was poured in October 2013, while commercial production in New Liberty mine is expected to commence in 2014 and expected annual gold production to be 119,000 ounces (oz) for the first six years and 859,000oz over the mine life of eight and half years.

Mineralisation And Gold Deposit In New Liberty Mine Liberia


South Deep gold mine which was formerly named Western Areas Gold Mine located in some 45 kilometers south-west of Johannesburg, in the districts of Westonaria and Vanderbijl park in the Gauteng province region of South Africa. South Deep gold mine has a depth of 2,995m below the surface, and is the world's deepest mines. South Deep gold mine in South Africa held by  Newshelf 899 Proprietary Limited (Newshelf) which is a 90% subsidiary of Gold Fields Limited and the remaining 10% is held by outside shareholders as part of the BBBEE transaction.

The South Deep Gold Mine lies at the northwestern edge of the Witwatersrand Basin, known as the West Rand Goldfield. The property covers an area of 2,469 hectares of surface (freehold) land and 3,563 hectares.

Mineral deposit in South Deep gold mine region of South Africa
South deep mine is located in the Far West Rand Goldfields and forms a part of the Witwatersrand Basin. The mine deposits lies beneath the Karoo Supergroup, Chuniesoort Group, Pretoria Group, Klipriviersberg Group and the Central Rand Group.

The Central Rand group comprises of detrital sedimentary rocks filled with quartz-pebble conglomerates. The gold deposits are interrelated with sedimentary features such as unconformities and fluvial channels.

The South Deep deposit has approximately 39.1Moz of gold reserves. The estimated uranium inventory at the mine is 37.5Mlb.

South Deep Gold Mine In South Africa Mining Methods And Gold Processing


South Deep gold mine which was formerly named Western Areas Gold Mine located in some 45 kilometers south-west of Johannesburg, in the districts of Westonaria and Vanderbijl park in the Gauteng province region of South Africa. South Deep gold mine has a depth of 2,995m below the surface, and is the world's deepest mines. South Deep gold mine in South Africa held by  Newshelf 899 Proprietary Limited (Newshelf) which is a 90% subsidiary of Gold Fields Limited and the remaining 10% is held by outside shareholders as part of the BBBEE transaction.

The South Deep Gold Mine lies at the northwestern edge of the Witwatersrand Basin, known as the West Rand Goldfield. The property covers an area of 2,469 hectares of surface (freehold) land and 3,563 hectares.

Mineral deposit in South Deep gold mine region of South Africa
South deep mine is located in the Far West Rand Goldfields and forms a part of the Witwatersrand Basin. The mine deposits lies beneath the Karoo Supergroup, Chuniesoort Group, Pretoria Group, Klipriviersberg Group and the Central Rand Group.

The Central Rand group comprises of detrital sedimentary rocks filled with quartz-pebble conglomerates. The gold deposits are interrelated with sedimentary features such as unconformities and fluvial channels.

The South Deep deposit has approximately 39.1Moz of gold reserves. The estimated uranium inventory at the mine is 37.5Mlb.