Showing posts with label GOLD MINING NEWS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GOLD MINING NEWS. Show all posts

Steps Of Engineering Concentration From International Precious Metals Institute ( IPMI )


Examples of exciting from International Precious Metals Institute ( IPMI ) how to refine precious metals with the initial steps of engineering concentration, using chemical engineering mineral engineering metallurgical, industrial engineering geology, geosciences, organic, inorganic, health, safety and many others.

Precious metals produced from primary sources start off as or once the ore is removed from the mine it must be processed to separate the valuable content from the surrounding rock and minerals to extract the metals from the ore. 

Ore with low concentrations of metal take more energy and work to concentrate and refine. concentrations of precious metals in or can be very low, yet still be profitable to mines due to high value platinum concentrations in or can contain as little as two and a half grams per ton, that is the equivalent of 2 to 3 grams of precious metals in a million grams of surrounding Rock.

The task of separating the Platinum from the rest of the material is a multi-step process using a variety of separation techniques. Mineral engineering is the discipline that utilizes technology to concentrate or the techniques used in mineral engineering have formed the foundation of all refining and recycling processes. This is true for precious metals recycling from automotive catalysts to the separation and recycling of metals glass and plastics from household trash.

The differences in physical properties of materials being separated are used to separate them. for example a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic particles can be separated using large magnets within separating tumblers. In every case the material must first be broken apart into small enough particles to enable them be separated.

Crushing and grinding of the first step to break down more the amount of energy used, to accomplish this is significant so technology has been refined to optimize the process or its first blasted from rock, and then the large boulders get crushed for easy transport and handling by trucks and conveyors.

The ore is then taken through various types of crushing and grinding equipment until it is almost in a fine powder form. The rock size distribution and hardness are matched to the type of equipment used impact crushers roll crushers home pressures and grinding Mills progressively reduce the particle size massive grinding or ball mills contain large hard spheres which roll and tumble to grind the ore particles between their services. Technology has been developed to monitor variations in the incoming orb properties and modify the crushing techniques to improve efficiency.

Once the metal bearing or has been crushed and then ground the precious metal bearing material must be separated from the rest of the material. A standard and widely used process called flotation separates particles based on their tendency to attach to frothing bubbles. precious metals can be found within ores metallic particles or contained in formations of oxides or sulphides. 

When the valuable content of the ore is in one form like sulfide the surface chemistry properties may differ from the surrounding material in the ore which will allow Flotation to be used to separate them the ore is mixed with water and small quantities of chemicals are added to help the separation a very small amount of wetting agent is first mixed in to selectively coat the desired particles.

This treatment alters the surface chemistry of some material and improves attraction and adherence to the bubbles in the froth, the pH of the slurry may also be monitored and adjusted to control the surface chemistry, the next chemical addition is the frothing agent which is a type of soap which will create thick bubbles that can hold on to the selected particles.

Internal impellers spin at high speeds to draw in air and create fine bubbles these bubbles swirl and rise to the top collecting the particles along the way, this is similar to and can be thought of as a cleaning, action much the same way dirt and stains are cleaned from clothing.

A stain remover may first be sprayed on to treat the fine particles in the stain and then the detergents in the wash lifted up and out. The bubbles then overflow to separate and concentrate the metal bearing particles. Prior to the next concentrating steps a series of flotation cells are typically used in which the froth from one cell cascades into the next cell for further concentration.

Once ores are concentrated additional technologies are used depending on the metals being processed as well as the other materials being removed. hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are the next disciplines within the realm of mineral engineering which are next employed to concentrate the precious metals from the ore.

Hydrometallurgy involves the technologies which chemically dissolve or leach to eventually extract metals. pyrometallurgy involves melting or other thermal treatment of ores to concentrate or extract metals.

Video International Precious Metals Institute ( IPMI ) Refine Precious Metals - Step Concentration 

See Also : 

Video How To Refine Precious Metals - Hydrometallurgy

Gold Exploration Activities In Newmont Waihi


Geologists Newmont exploring for gold on the coromandel peninsula and the gold fields look for the tale signs of historic volcanic and geothermal. Activity exploration is conducted for define mineral deposits, although it's one of the  first steps towards  developing a mine exploration in an area does not necessarily mean that mining  will follow for every thousand prospects identified only one has the likelihood of becoming an operating mine.

Exploration mine involve geological mapping rock and soil geochemical surveys and geophysical surveys. These surveys provide information on the characteristics of the rocks their history ,strength, magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and mineral content . These are all parameters which help identify areas of greater prospectivity where more detailed work including exploration drilling may be conducted.

Exploration drilling provides a wide range of information on some surface geology, wine space drilling can often show geologic trends which point to areas of Greater prospectivity. Most of the rigs used in this area a diamond drilling rigs, they use a diamond impregnated drill bits capable of boring through hard rock. The drill bit cuts a circular hole to produce drill core for analysis.

The drill bit has attached to the end of a string of hollow steel rods. The rigs engine spins the drill string as it is pushed into the ground. every three meters a new rod is added, as the drill string is spinning and penetrating the rock the chorus forced into the drill rod, if meet raw so this core is pulled out through the inside of the rods and placed in boxes ready for analysis by geologists.

In this region most holes are drilled to a depth of between 200 and 500 meters and due to the near vertical orientation of the quartz veins the holes must be angled to intersect the veins and maximize the information from the drill core, then taken back to a corset and laid out so geologists can record the rock type from surface to the bottom of the hole.

Drill sites are chosen and controls are in place to ensure that exploration drilling activities minimize the impact to the environment. the consent of landowners and occupies is required for any exploration drilling activities and this is formalized in an access agreement.

Drill rigs come in a wide range of configurations from large truck for track mounted to small skid mounted healthy portable rigs. The type of rig used depends on the location ease of access and depth of hole planned. Water is sourced from local streams or if necessary brought to the site. resource consents from the Regional Council are required to take water from streams.

Drilling fluids are added to the water at the rig, these are used to lubricate the drill bit and flush the rock cuttings out of the hole.  The cuttings that come up out of the hole may look muddy and messy but they're captured in sumps at the drill site, where the rock cuttings settle out and the fluids harmlessly break down over time.

There are no discharges off the site . Drilling activities must also comply with all district and regional council regulations covering a range of potential environmental effects.

When the drilling program is completed the drillers cement up the hole before the rig leaves the site. the sumps are filled and all equipment is removed. the site is rehabilitated to the satisfaction of the landowner

Video Gold Exploration Activities In Newmont Waihi

Video Process Basics How Gold Is Made In The Mining


Gold is the softest and most malleable, metal it can be pressed extremely thin crafted into various shapes even drawn out to form a fine wire. Gold isn't affected by water or oxygen as many metals are so it doesn't rust. Most gold comes from low deposits also called bein deposits concentrations of gold and other metals in the cracks of rocks. Low deposits require hard rock mining, the process of removing gold-bearing rock called or by drilling and blasting

Miners to send more than half kilometer underground there they drill holes for explosives using what's called a long whole air drill. They drill in a specific pattern set out in a plan prepared by the mines engineers. The engineers know exactly where those veins of gold are thanks to the mining companies geologists who studied or samples.

The company collects these samples by drilling deep into the rock at 50-meter intervals. These diamond drill cores as they're called are up to 100 meters long and measure three point five centimeters in diameter.

Gold in its natural state isn't cure it's usually intertwined with silver and other metals, so the mind or has to be processed afterward to isolate and extract the gold. A metric ton of ore yields only about six point five grams of gold. After blasting the rock apart with explosives or miners use what's called a mock machine to transfer the or two cars headed to the main shaft and then above ground to the mill. There a crusher reduces the large chunks into smaller rocks about the size of gravel a mil then processed into a pulp

The factory adds a water and cyanide solution than another mill and flows into large settling tanks. The wet solids being heavier sinks to the bottom, the water the top drains to another area. They transfer the solids to an agitation tank and blowing air the oxygen steps off a chemical reaction between the cyanide and the goal triggering the gold to dissolve and leach into the surrounding water.  

Drum filters then separate the water from the solids. This water now joins the water that was separated earlier they pour in zinc powder to solidify the dissolve gold and four pieces containing both zink and gold. To smelt it into bars they first have to mix several chemicals, manganese dioxide, flew right, silica flower, borax and sodium nitrate. 

This chemical mix called flux will separate the gold from the impurities. Into the smelter whose temperature is a fiery 1,600 degrees Celsius. The rotate smelters so that the contents heat evenly, over two and a half hours the heavier gold eventually sinks to the bottom while the impurities called slag float to the surface.  They pour out the slag taking a sample to make sure it contains gold or no.

The gold cooled slightly so they reheat - 1600 degrees celsius, then cast into bar-shaped molds. The gold takes about four minutes to harden, and then another hour to cool completely in a basin of cold water. Then bullion cleaned of dirt remaining combustion. Gold bars or ingots, this stage the gold is eighty percent pure.

Video Process Basics How Gold Is Made In The Mining 

Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa


Province Loba 50 meters underground Since 2001, artisanal gold mining communities have sprung up around West Africa, In many respect it resembles the gold rush of the nineteenth century.

These cities were mere fields before they came artisanal miners. His arrival created wealth and a flourishing secondary economy that drove the development of regulations, systems of land tenure, infrastructure and economic diversification.

It is fascinating to see that almost the same phenomena that occurred in the gold rush are happening again today.

Although artisanal gold mining has been active since antiquity, the sector in West Africa has grown dramatically since 2001, driven by rising gold price and the lack of alternative opportunities.

Many farmers and herdsmen have entered the sector of artisanal gold mining and now they use their profits to improve their farming activities.

In artisanal gold mining, see a direct transfer of wealth which it is unique to other products sold on the international market.

For most agricultural products, for example, those who buy in the grocery store, only a small fraction of that profit back to the small original producer, often less than 20%.

Even for social brand products, the percentage is only moderately higher. For example, the banana cooperatives receive about a dollar for 18 kilos of bananas, less than 20%. On the other hand, artisanal miners earn a minimum of 70% to 80% of the international price.

This is unheard of in other goods. Artisanal gold mining is a massive wealth from rich to poor, but also has an amplification effect.

The local secondary economy is typically five or six times larger than the primary economy, the value of gold.

Miners use their profits to pay for hardware products, mining supplies, food, clothing, transportation, communications, medicine, all things that sell local businesses and people of that service sector, in turn do the same.

Thus they are circulating gold profits, building a large and diverse local economy. Motorcycle dealers, home improvement, telecommunications, health services, infrastructure and schools often appear in cities in connection artisanal gold mines.

Mercury is one of the great problems of artisanal gold mining. Mercury is cheap and therefore affordable means for processing the gold, but it is also a deadly neurotoxin that can cause permanent damage to the nervous system, and even death.

It is also a poor extraction method, which normally gets about 40% of the gold that is in the mineral, therefore wasting resource.

Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa

Although problems like mercury poisoning, exposure to silica dust, child labor and other criminal activity may be present in artisanal mining sites around West Africa, governments often overlook the positive benefits.

Governments and the media have a history of condemnation and demonization of artisanal gold mining without really properly understand the sector without offering solutions.

However, artisanal gold mining is now universally recognized by international agencies like the UN as a development opportunity and a huge source of rural employment and wealth generation.

The modern sector of artisanal gold mining has been strong for some 40 years and because of the jobs it provides poor rural areas, it is clear that it will continue.

In fact, it is probably stronger than the industrial sector of gold mining, which it is much more susceptible to fluctuations in gold prices.

In this context, the government and industry should help artisanal gold mining to improve their environmental and social performance to allow maximize its role of reducing poverty.

Need help and support to enter the formal economy, where you can become a responsible sector and help finance a diverse and sustainable rural economy.

And this is where comes the Artisanal Gold Council (AGC). The Artisanal Gold Council is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving opportunities, the environment and health of the millions of people involved in artisanal mining and small-scale gold in the developing world, and in doing so, we are helping to improve the integrity of the entire gold sector, from small to large.

Artisanal Gold Council (AGC)
In West Africa

Video  Artisanal Gold Mining In West Africa
Problems Solutions and Opportunities

Poisoned By Gold Rush In Colombia

Traditional mining in Colombia
Poisoned by GOLD RUSH It is to Remedios, a traditional mining town in the region of Antioquia, a rich gold country in northern Colombia.

Mining has always been one of the main activities of the region, but in recent years the sector is booming.

A recent increase in the value of gold and the government's fight against coca cultivation led to unprecedented demand for the precious ore.

Today, gold is quickly becoming the new cocaine in Colombia. The explosion flooded the country of cash, sex, alcohol and debauchery.

But the exposure of children to mercury cheap technology to extract gold, had a negative impact.

In particular, many children find them selves powerless today. There is a problem of impotence in the region? It is a problem. It is usually attributed to mercury pollution in the region.

To meet the growing demand for gold, the number of underground mines exploded. Today, mercury pollution has become a serious problem in this region of Colombia. The mines destroy the jungle, dry rivers, and discharge of harmful pollutants in nature.

Today, about 80 percent of the gold mined in Colombia comes from these mines some of which help finance the guerrillas, and criminal or paramilitary groups.

It is a disputed territory for many years, and armed rebel groups trying to control the territory, because, of course, the wealth of natural. Illegal mining operations bring in about $ 2.

Traditional mining in Colombia
Gold grain for traditional mining in Colombia
5 billion a year, and are now more profitable than cocaine trade for Colombian armed groups, managing or impose farms.

Per kilo, the value of gold is greater than that of cocaine, and as it is a legal product, it is easier to sell. This is why young people like Didier Perea flock to the mines in the hope of making a fortune. 

Recently it became a business because there are mines where you start working and the salary minimum is very good.

Addict ? Yes, because sometimes we find gold, you take a barrel, washed and wins up to 5 million Colombian pesos (1,485 euros) for this piece, so inevitably it motivates us, and It gradually becomes addicted.

In this type of small-scale operations, Minors use mercury to separate gold from other materials. They are in constant contact with such a toxic material that even low levels of exposure can damage the nervous system.

Chronic mercury poisoning can cause organ failure and even death. For over 100 years this method is banned in the United States. 

Survey Mining In Afghanistan


Commercial drill rigs are a rare sight in Afghanistan. Problems affecting the country's infrastructure and instability have left mining projects in their infancy, but Afghanistan is a geological treasure trove.

"There is a working gold mine in Baghlan at the moment and in Sheberghan we've got gas and petrol. The north of Afghanistan has lots of mining opportunities.

In Jegdalek there are gemstones and in Mes Aynak there is copper, iron and chromium and other valuable minerals.

Drillers and geologists are among the first cohort of trainees from the Afghanistan Geological Survey being taught by the US Dod Task Force for Business and Stability Operations. The students are gaining the skills they need to explore and exploit the country's resources,by training in modern explorative techniques.

The next step for these drillers will be to push out into the country's mountains. Hope is that security will improve still, because there is still some insecurity in some of Afghanistan's provinces.

If the security improves, they will be able to go freely everywhere in Afghanistan to conduct surveys.

"And if Afghanistan's security does improve, the Afghan government will be first in line to exploit the nearly 3 trillion dollars of resources lying in its hills and mountains.

It's hoped that the mining sector could become one of the Afghan economy's strongest assets.

"There has effectively been a hiatus of exploration activity in Afghanistan largely on account of the security issues, for perhaps around 20 to 25 years.

The Russians in the mid-1970s did a considerable amount of work, but after the invasion and through the eighties, nineties and now in the first part of the century there hasn't been that much work done.

So there fore within the donor community there has been a great push to provide technical expertise to build capacity within the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Petroleum and within the Afghan Geological Survey to help the Afghans help them selves and to develop their mineral resources and to exploit those resources for profit.

" Afghanistan's Geological Survey team will have an opportunity to play a vital part in their country's economy.

Much hinges on a long-awaited mining law to be passed ensuring the country's resources are fairly and legally exploited.

Video Survey Mining for minerals in Afghanistan

The Products Of Gold Ore

 Gold within rock
Gold is produced from both primary and secondary sources , primary sources are mining activities and these take a variety of forms hard rock underground mining, open pit mining and dredging in the ocean lakes rivers and streams. Secondary sources refer to materials coming from recycled scrap metal scrap jewelry scrap electronic scrap spent sputtering targets and many others gold

From primary remaining sources in the american prospect is panning for both flakes and small nuggets in Riverbend ancient cultures occasionally found gold and silver and riverbeds also low deposit work gold is found within rock and placer deposits is where erosion has washed down from the hills and outcroppings of metal near the surface this lustrous and ductile.

Small nuggets from river
Metal was sought after throughout the centuries by almost all cultures metal jewelry artwork and eventually finding a place as monetary currency the majority of gold is mine from mineral deposits where it's found mixed with other metals and minerals these deposits are called or the ancient

Egyptians Greeks and Romans all developed underground mining operations a low deposits more than 2,000 years ago many of these vines especially in eastern europe greece turkey and other middle eastern countries are still economically viable and in production

Today pores are concentrated in veins which were formed millions of years ago deep under the earth surface. These veins were formed from hot water rising from hot magma the metal slowly precipitated out along these complex veins

Mines will also have side streams of gold and silver production which help. Their bottom line approximately twenty percent of gold is produced as a byproduct of copper and silver mining operations.
Following numerous paths approximately 70 million ounces of gold our mind each year the highest concentrations of gold found in North and South America are on both sides of the mountain ranges that run the length of these regions the sierra nevada in north america and the Andes in South America gold and silver are almost universally found in conjunction with copper deposits virtually all copper

Video  The Products Of Gold Ore

Job Vacancy In Oceana Gold Corporation


Oceana Gold Corporation currently has opened the opportunity for you career opportunities and work in mines. OceanaGold Corporation is a producer of gold and copper metals multinational which operates in New Zealand, Philippines,and United States.

The mainstay of the company's operations is the Didipio mine which is located in  the northern Philippines and has a current mine life to 2030 In New Zealand, OceanaGold operates the country’s largest gold operation at the Macraes Goldfield on the South Island.

If you are interested in becoming a member of the OceanaGold team, this is your career opportunities

1.  Job Vacancy IT Systems Administrator

Oceana Gold currently seeking a driven individual to join experienced and professional IT team in the position of IT Systems Administrator in Oceana Gold. Based in central Dunedin office and reporting to the IT Operations Manager, this role is primarily responsible for planning, designing, developing and implementation of information systems and ensuring breakdowns are minimised or prevented for all Oceana Gold’s operations company wide. 

You will be responsible for daily monitoring and maintenance of IT systems, system backups and restores, and monitoring IT applications for improvement or updates. This is a fantastic opportunity for an experienced IT professional to join a high performing IT team within a progressive and expanding organisation.

The successful candidate will possess:
  • At least 2 years’ experience in system administration
  • The ability to work both independently and as part of a team
More infomation Job Vacancy IT Systems Administrator : 

2. Underground Maintenance Planner

An opportunity has arisen for an experienced Maintenance Planner to join the Underground Maintenance team at our Waihi Operation. Reporting to the Underground Maintenance Superintendent you will be responsible for scheduling the short, medium and long term maintenance plans for repairs and component exchange on mobile equipment as well you will be responsible for planning cost effective maintenance and ensuring equipment availability targets are met. 

Specific duties will include but are not limited to: 
  • Timely and effective planning of maintenance and resources to maintain equipment to relevant standards.
  • Overseeing and assisting contract Supervisor/s in micro-planning major equipment maintenance overhauls
  • Chairing weekly maintenance planning meetings
  • Participate in active safety management
  • Maintaining planning and reporting systems to acceptable standard
  • Monitor costs and budgets
  • Materials, Parts and Labour requestioning 
More Information Job Underground Maintenance Planner :

The successful applicant will have a trades/maintenance qualification with relevant planning experience in mining. A full and current NZ Driver Licence with the ability to drive a manual is preferred. Excellent communication skills are crucial to your success in this role and a strong commitment to continuous improvements to fleet maintenance.

3. Underground Diesel Fitter

OceanaGold Corporation are seeking an experienced and highly motivated Diesel Fitter to join our performance orientated team at the Waihi Operation. The successful applicant will carry out preventative maintenance tasks to the required performance and safety standards as well as other general duties to support the Maintenance team.

Applicants for this role must have effective communication skills and must be capable of planning their own workload on a daily basis. In return we can offer an excellent remuneration package and the opportunity to be part of an organisation that prides itself on process and technological advancements.

At OceanaGold health and safety is paramount to the success of our day to day operations and as such we look for people who have a high regard for personal safety, fitness for duty, the safety of workmates and ensuring their work area is tidy and free of hazards.

Key criteria for this role include:
  • A relevant trade qualification
  • Previous experience in a 24 hour, continual process production industrial environment or heavy manufacturing environment is preferred
  • Full and current Driver Licence, with the ability to drive a manual vehicle
  • Practically orientated problem solving skills.
More Information Job Underground Diesel Fitter :

If you share the same values and have what we are looking for, please apply online now via website:
Applications close Monday 16th May 2016
Applicants must be eligible to work in New Zealand or hold a valid Work Permit.

Job Vacancy Underground Mine Foreman In Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC)


Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC) constitute a company engaged in the a gold producer with a portfolio of operating mining, development and exploration of mineral resources. Oceana Gold Corporation is an emerging multinational gold and copper producer with over 24 years of operating sustainably in New Zealand and recently conducted mining operations in the Philippines and United States. 

The assets of the company are located in the South Island of New Zealand, and in the northern Philippines. OGC has three mines operating in New Zealand; Macrae’s Open Pit, Frasers underground and Reefton mines. In New Zealand Oceana Gold the largest gold operation in the country at the Macraes Goldfield in the South Island and Waihi Gold Mine in the North Island operates. OceanaGold has an unwavering commitment to the environment and the host communities in where they conduct mining operations 

Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC)  looking for an experienced Underground Mine Foreman for Waihi mining operation. Reporting to the Underground Mine Manager are responsible for coordinating the underground mining operations responsible for ensuring equipment production and use are achieved goals in a safe, cost effective and timely manner. In addition, manage service providers and mining activities are carried out in accordance with the statutory provisions 

To be successful in  Underground Mine Foreman position, the several following attributes be required
  • New Zealand A or B Grade Tunnel Manager’s Certificate of Competency (or the ability to obtain)
  • Minimum 15 years underground mining experience with exposure to mechanised development and production techniques
  • A proven track record of supervising and coordinating underground mining personnel and contractor activities
  • Extensive knowledge of the practices and techniques applied in underground mining
  • Current First Aid Certificate
  • Full and current NZ Drivers Licence
  • Strong written and verbal communication skills
In Oceana Gold health and safety for the success of daily operation of the utmost importance and as such Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC) looking for people who a high regard for personal safety, fitness for duty, the safety of their colleagues 

If you share the same values and have what they are looking for,please apply online now via website Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC)  :
Applications close Monday 16th May 2016
Applicants must be eligible to work in New Zealand or hold a valid Work Permit.

Silver And Gold Bullion Coins


Collecting silver and gold bullion coins can be an investment, combines an insurance against market inflation and a hobby passionate a person. Accumulating silver and gold coins are the easiest way for you start to own gold and silver. Many of the bullion coin series which have multitudes of designs created with outstanding craftsmanship, so silver and gold make very desirable objects.

Since the first bullion coin published in South Africa in 1967, and then a lot of national exhibitions in the world have their own gold coins series. Very most popular the British Britannia series, from gold coins the Chinese Gold Panda Series and the American silver Eagle. 

Most silver and gold coins never used in daily trade (some gold coins such as the Krugerrand have no face value!), despite that many of the bullion coins issued today are bestowed with legal tender status in their respective country of issue, therefore making them exportable to most of the countries worldwide without being subjected to import taxes, duty or VAT.

This fact makes silver and gold coins a very appealing means for  ownership of gold and silver in private. Investors put their money into gold and silver coins to balance off  the effects of inflation because the value of the two metals have more or less since increase consistantly in the last five years. 

Then again, it is noteworthy that since many bullion coin series, especially designs change every year and have very limited edition, many  bullion coin series less than 100,000 units per year. This leads be accessed due to its rarity and collectible value in some bullion coins significantly higher prices at the top of their market gold content. 

Therefore tend investors for gold coins looking to who repetitive design during its annual issue, significant influences and command have not a high premium, such a Nice example is the South African Krugerrand coin when it first issued was to pick up the South African Krugerrand a premium no higher than 5% of its gold content, and the premium less than 1% above from in their market price of gold 

Here are some tips to keep your silver and gold coins collection to start : 

1. Are you an investor or collector? This is the major factor that will influence which coins to buy and which coins to “admire only”. Furthermore, caring for rare collectible bullion coins requires more technical expertise and some considerable investment in keeping your collection in pristine condition (but well worth the price).

2. bullion coins are not a recipient of money fast, they are kept for years, before even trading or reselling them. When your collection grew, investments in safekeeping a hidden safe in the Home or in the vault of bank deposits can also be used.

3. For starters, silver bullion coins are a nice idea as they are cheaper, so you can an impressive collection in a shorter time (and with less budget!). 

4. Concentration in the collection on a few types of gold coins as a starter, the market may be full of forgeries and fraud, read approximately the series of gold coins you gather to tell certain facts such as sizes, purity, designs of the coin as well as special issues (eg there is such a thing as a silver Krugerrand ), you can easily help to identify which is a deal and which is a scam.

5. If you buy from your local coin dealer, the first take the time to check the background your dealer , whether they are known and trusted in your area or your neighborhood?  Do they offer Fair advice and friendly service? 

6. When buying online, the best method is to start buying from auction first before going to individual shops, as auction website such as ebay have feedback system tracking the past sales of the particular seller, giving good indication on whether the seller provide good service, or whether they have sell similar items in the past and of course whether they provide good quality wares. And the large market of auction websites with numerous sellers can give comparison of the prices of a specific coin

Video Where To Buy & NOT Buy Gold & Silver

High Profits Investing In Gold


Investing in gold is becoming increasingly popular due to the high cost on the market today. There are three ways that are most common to invest in gold and all three have pros and cons. It is important, just like making any investment, carefully weigh options and determine exactly what the best .

No matter what choice, the ultimate goal is to make money and have made a wise investment. Some ways are very familiar and require any amount of money while others require large investments and are not so familiar.

The first and most common way of investing in gold is to actually buy gold. This can be anything from buying gold bars, coins, jewelry and ingots. Many people associate this with investing in gold and it can be done with virtually any amount of money.

The thing to remember about this type of investment is that people will only buy the amount that they are willing to spend. This ultimately means that the price of gold can fluctuate dramatically either way at any given time. It is important to buy at the right time so that when the market value of gold goes up, can make money and prove made a good investment.

The second option of investing in gold is to buy it on contract. This means that own the gold but do not have to physically store it someplace safe. Will only need to keep track of the paper on which the contract is written.

With this option it is important to determine which are more comfortable with: either holding the gold physically in hand or paying to store it at a bank in their vault or buying it on contract and believing that the actual gold really does exist somewhere.

Finally, when in investing in gold,  can literally buy the mining company. With this option will buy shares in the gold mining company and whatever gold they find while mining will get a percentage of it in the end.

It is important to make sure that are buying shares in a mining company which only mines gold so that can have the best return on investment.

This is video Tips for investing in gold

Read Also 

- The Real Gold Mine

Semi Autogenous Grinding Mill In Mining ( SAG Mill Video )


SAG mill in the mining constitute equipment used in the mining industry for grinding material, it uses steel balls next to large rocks to grind. SAG is an acronym for Semi Autogenous Grinding Mill and the SAG mills use minimum ball charge 6-15%. It has a large diameter and short length in the equipment SAG. 

The liner is made of wear-resistant steel and provided with lifters, which when the mill rotates can in increasing the load support. The load consists of dry ore, steel balls and water, which occupies 30% of the volume. 8% of this volume is steel balls. 

A SAG mill is most common used in the mining areas, especially in the mining of precious metals,  such as gold, copper, silver and nickel. The SAG mill is used in the line of industrial mining equipment designed to process, crushing, separating, or locate precious metals from coal. The SAG mill is one of the major mining equipment pieces and often requires machinery repair and maintenance.  

This is most often due to the large amount of heavy, residue bearing material being churned from grinding mill due to the Large amount. The SAG mill used plates along the inside of the drum, lift the material during rotation, causing them to fall onto each other to crushing. 

A semi-autogenous grinding mill or SAG mill is responsible for materials of Large chunks into Little pieces suitable for processing material. The SAG mill is usually part of the primary stage in the grinding process. Pieces of raw or reduced rock materials into smaller pieces for further processing or sorting. These machines are electrically driven , but changed and have been modified from powering systems over the years.

It may often be necessary to service a variety of industrial gold mining equipment, coal mining equipment, and other relevant major mining equipment. People who work in SAG mills must to understand involved in each phase of the machine repair process the intricate details, rehabilitation of mining equipment and great care. This information will necessity a trained eye and skillful hand, to ensure that the machine working properly.

SAG Mill & Maintenance

Some of the necessary services for the SAG mill machines comprise technical support during the construction and application processes for the mining equipment manufacturers. Other services include the production of parts, mining machinery repair and restoration of mining machinery. This type of equipment is extremely important for the production and economy, and it is necessary to take care when handling the equipment. Professionals should be very knowledgeable in this unit.

When machine has been shut down, or the process is problematic , so do production and profit slowed. Mining machinery maintenance and modifications keep production running at its best. SAG mill operations are no exceptions. In Specific, it is important to ensure that the lifting plates, rotating drums, mill rotators and other machine components their optimal operating functions maintained at all times by ensuring that preventive and routine maintenance completed on schedule and on time.

SAG mill mining machinery, and other mining equipment, are crucial for the mining industry. SAG mill has a far history in mining production and must be handled carefully and with caution to ensure safety and optimal production at any time. Gold-mining equipment and mining equipment are among the most waited mill types mining machinery, which requires maintenance and modification. 

Video Rubicon Minerals Corp: SAG Mill First Run Phoenix Gold Project 

The South African Gold Market


The economy of South Africa depends largely on its mining industry. It  is mines  precious metals like  gold , copper, platinum, and diamonds. The South African gold market is 120 years old. It has seen a continuous cycle of ebbs, and falls in its economic history. Like many other countries, it depended upon the London bullion market to sell its gold to the global gold market. Individual  gold   mining  companies and brokers marketed  gold  through London.

Later, The Reserve bank of South Africa took over the control of the gold market of South Africa in the early twentieth century, after the First World War ended, and used The Bank of England as its selling agent to channel gold to the London bullion market.

Later in 1968, during the Vietnam conflict, the London gold market was closed for two weeks. When it reopened, the future of the global gold market had changed forever. It had lost a number of its potential clients. The three main Swiss banks formed a Zurich gold pool, and approached The South African Reserve Bank to channel its gold. Even today, Switzerland is known to handle most of the gold produced in South Africa in the global gold market.

South Africa has the second largest gold reserves in the world. In the beginning, it contributed as much as half the total gold produced in the world. However, over a period, its  gold  production slowed down, despite the low-cost of  gold   mining  in South Africa. With the  gold  rush in California, and later in Australia,  gold   mining  companies focussed their attention to the newly discovered mines.

Gold   mining  is anyway a difficult job, and in a country like South Africa, where the geological factors make it unbearable to work, the instability of the country further hampers the growth of  gold   mining  industry. The geothermal temperature is more than 50 degree Celsius.

It needs tons and tons of water to be pumped in to cool the inner temperature. Moreover, it requires massive amounts of dynamite, and Cyanide to blast the  mines , and extract  gold  from there. The refining process of course needs uninterrupted power supply.

So altogether, the cost of  mining  and  processing  raw  gold  is extravagant for the government. With its limited resources, and insufficient power supply, coupled with the civil wars, and political instability, it has failed to deliver a prospective gold market. Rand, the South African currency is constantly losing its value against other currencies. The  gold  market has not yet shown signs of recovery, but the government is initiating projects like thermal power stations to generate more electricity for the  gold   mines  to increase their production by 2010.

Related Article :

- History Of Gold Mining In South Africa
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Gold Refining


Gold refining is the final stage of the gold production and it consists of removing the impurities that remain in the precious metal after the smelting process. The companies that are specialized in refining are used to receiving both gold scrap and bars which they liquefy. Afterwards, the workers add borax and soda ash to the metal. With their help, the pure gold is separated from other precious metals and less precious metals.

When the procedure is over, a sample of the glittering metal is taken to a laboratory in order to determine if it is pure. If the gold is 99.9% pure then the workers can pour it into bars. The next step is determined to what the gold is intended.

When gold is combined with another metal they together form an alloy. You can tell alloys have been used with the precious metal by looking at its color: white- gold and nickel, silver, palladium; red/pink – gold and cooper; blue – gold an iron.

The glittering metal is measured in karats. This actually refers to how much gold is presented in an object versus another metal. If the karat is big, than the amount of precious metal is high. The 24 karat is 100% gold, the 12 karat has half as much.

People from different cultures prefer different types of karats. People from India like wearing 22 karat jewelry, while Europeans wear 18 karats and Americans are fond of 14 karat. This latter type of precious metal combines the glittering content with the affordability creating the perfect balance.

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Gold Mining In Balkan Region ( Gold Mining In Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo )


Antique gold mining in the Balkan region is well documented begins in the middle ages, but started the modern mining, especially in the last 50 years. Most of this mining was carried out in the region, which covers the three countries; Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo. Anders mined as gold at the other in the region include metals, zinc, copper and lead. 

The civil war in the former Yugoslavia,  in 1991st  in the region gold mining which heavily affected. But with the finish of the war in the spring of 2000 and gaining independence both Macedonia and Kosovo from Yugoslavia and Serbia respectively the mining sector in these countries has begun to grow again.

A number of foreign investors have been awarded mining concessions for gold and this is expected to increase the country to promote gold production. 

Gold Mining In Albania

Unlike the other major gold mined in Albania Minerals include petroleum, coal and natural gas from those found most in the southwestern regions of the country. The country is also contain, copper, cobalt, nickel, dolomite, asbestos, silver, bauxite and kaolin, and other things. 

There has been in the gold mining industry in the recent past, increased investment, and this is probably the country to increase the production of gold. Some of the major players in the gold sector of the country include the Arian resources Perlat copper-gold-silver-cobalt mine is located in Puke district Albania possesses. This mine is part of a 290 hectare exploration license, which runs for 25 years. The mine produces copper, gold, silver and cobalt. 

Another important player in the gold mining sector in the country is the Tirex Resources, owns the mineral rights to the Mirdita district. The company initially received an exploration license for copper and zinc, but shown exploration activities have the presence of high grade gold and silver in the region. The company now

Gold Mining In Macedonia

Macedonia is also well equipped with mineral resources containing gold, lead, copper, silver and cadmium among others. Gold mining in Macedonia dates back to the time of Alexander the Great, where gold was mined used to finance and the running of the Roman Empire. Gold mining has continued to the present day, and occupies an important place in the country’s economy. After years of repressed production, the country has taken on a program in its mining sector to rekindle.  

Today there are several gold projects in the country. These include the Ilovica gold-copper project, which is the first of its greenfield development in the country. The project is owned by Euromax Resources and covers Approximately 500 hectares in a 1,500 ha concession area. Construction of the mine in 2016 with mining declared expected in 2018 to Start 

Another gold mine in the country is the Buchim copper mine, the open pit mine one that gold, silver and copper. The mine was founded in 1979 and is operated by the Solway Industries owned and. The ore is mined from Approximately 0.3 g / t gold. Unlike the two projects mentioned above there are several other gold mining projects still in the research. These include two prospecting concessions and two exploration licenses owned by Reservoir Minerals.  

Gold Mining in Kosovo 

Kosovo is another mineral Wealthy country in the Balkans. Gold in Kosovo is often accompany other minerals such as zinc, copper and lead found, among other things, although some clear alluvial gold reserves along rivers found. For many years, gold in Kosovo mine was mined mainly in Artana that the gold mine with the highest gold content through out Yugoslavia was operated 1939-1989 time. Before its closure, the mine had produced approximately 11.9 tons of gold.

Today is the Large gold mine in Kosovo is the Trepza Mine in Malisevo in wider circle of Prizren. The mine is estimated at a 1.18g / t gold containing a gold reserve of Approximately 0 million tons. This corresponds to Approximately 142 tonnes of gold.  

There are also several projects under exploration. These include the Slivovo exploration. A joint venture between the government and the Avrupa resource that is a subsidiary of Bymecut International Ltd of Australia The exploration was focused on the Peshter gussan block that has shown signs of gold deposits. Avrupa also holds a second exploration license for the Meovit area next to the Ancient Artana Goldmine

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Precious Metal Recovery ( Video )


Precious Metal Recovery refers to the reclaiming of precious metals from specific scrap materials. Many precious metal recovery services employ state of the art refining techniques, for extracting metals such as gold, silver and platinum etc.

These processes can extract precious non-ferrous-metals from industrial scraps, wires tubes and dishoarded bars. Recovery services are used in a variety of industries including, aerospace, jewelry, medical and the semi-conductor and printed circuit board industries.

These services may also include reducing the metal lots to assaying bars for evaluation, by utilizing thermal processes. Metal refining capabilities can include, melting and thermal reduction through incineration.

Recovery refers to the separation of precious metals from noble-metalliferous materials, some of these materials may include catalysts such as electronic assemblies or printed circuit boards. 

To isolate or remove the metals, procedures such as hydrolysis or pyrolysis are commonly employed. With hydrolysis, the noble-metalliferous materials can be dissolved in hydrochloric acid and chlorine gas solution, or dissolved in Aqua regia, which consists of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. 

In the procedure known as pyrolysis the precious metals are removed by solidifying in a melt to become cinder, and then oxidized. Some metals may be reduced directly with a gas or salt or nitro hydrate connection.

This is followed by various cleaning stages or are recrystallized, and the metals can then be separated from the salt by calcination. These precious metal materials are first hydrolyzed and then thermally prepared (pyrolysed) thereafter. The recycling product is removed and put several times through the cycle.

Precious metal recovery services are companies that purchase materials such as printed circuit boards, old wires, and industrial scraps that contain various precious metals such as :

o Gold & Silver

o Platinum

o Nickel & Tin

o Rhodium

o Palladium

o Copper & Bronze

These materials are then put through various processes to extract the precious metals from them. This makes good economical and environmental sense.

These services may also include buying old jewelry, and other valuable scrap metals such as :

o Brass

o Copper

o Bronze

o Aluminium

o Phosphor Bronze

These metals can then be smelted down and reused, thus saving valuable resources.

This is Video from Precious Metal Analysis - Instrumental Methods for Gold, Silver, Platinum, Palladium and other PGMs

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