Showing posts with label MINING INFORMATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label MINING INFORMATION. Show all posts

Steps Of Engineering Concentration From International Precious Metals Institute ( IPMI )


Examples of exciting from International Precious Metals Institute ( IPMI ) how to refine precious metals with the initial steps of engineering concentration, using chemical engineering mineral engineering metallurgical, industrial engineering geology, geosciences, organic, inorganic, health, safety and many others.

Precious metals produced from primary sources start off as or once the ore is removed from the mine it must be processed to separate the valuable content from the surrounding rock and minerals to extract the metals from the ore. 

Ore with low concentrations of metal take more energy and work to concentrate and refine. concentrations of precious metals in or can be very low, yet still be profitable to mines due to high value platinum concentrations in or can contain as little as two and a half grams per ton, that is the equivalent of 2 to 3 grams of precious metals in a million grams of surrounding Rock.

The task of separating the Platinum from the rest of the material is a multi-step process using a variety of separation techniques. Mineral engineering is the discipline that utilizes technology to concentrate or the techniques used in mineral engineering have formed the foundation of all refining and recycling processes. This is true for precious metals recycling from automotive catalysts to the separation and recycling of metals glass and plastics from household trash.

The differences in physical properties of materials being separated are used to separate them. for example a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic particles can be separated using large magnets within separating tumblers. In every case the material must first be broken apart into small enough particles to enable them be separated.

Crushing and grinding of the first step to break down more the amount of energy used, to accomplish this is significant so technology has been refined to optimize the process or its first blasted from rock, and then the large boulders get crushed for easy transport and handling by trucks and conveyors.

The ore is then taken through various types of crushing and grinding equipment until it is almost in a fine powder form. The rock size distribution and hardness are matched to the type of equipment used impact crushers roll crushers home pressures and grinding Mills progressively reduce the particle size massive grinding or ball mills contain large hard spheres which roll and tumble to grind the ore particles between their services. Technology has been developed to monitor variations in the incoming orb properties and modify the crushing techniques to improve efficiency.

Once the metal bearing or has been crushed and then ground the precious metal bearing material must be separated from the rest of the material. A standard and widely used process called flotation separates particles based on their tendency to attach to frothing bubbles. precious metals can be found within ores metallic particles or contained in formations of oxides or sulphides. 

When the valuable content of the ore is in one form like sulfide the surface chemistry properties may differ from the surrounding material in the ore which will allow Flotation to be used to separate them the ore is mixed with water and small quantities of chemicals are added to help the separation a very small amount of wetting agent is first mixed in to selectively coat the desired particles.

This treatment alters the surface chemistry of some material and improves attraction and adherence to the bubbles in the froth, the pH of the slurry may also be monitored and adjusted to control the surface chemistry, the next chemical addition is the frothing agent which is a type of soap which will create thick bubbles that can hold on to the selected particles.

Internal impellers spin at high speeds to draw in air and create fine bubbles these bubbles swirl and rise to the top collecting the particles along the way, this is similar to and can be thought of as a cleaning, action much the same way dirt and stains are cleaned from clothing.

A stain remover may first be sprayed on to treat the fine particles in the stain and then the detergents in the wash lifted up and out. The bubbles then overflow to separate and concentrate the metal bearing particles. Prior to the next concentrating steps a series of flotation cells are typically used in which the froth from one cell cascades into the next cell for further concentration.

Once ores are concentrated additional technologies are used depending on the metals being processed as well as the other materials being removed. hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are the next disciplines within the realm of mineral engineering which are next employed to concentrate the precious metals from the ore.

Hydrometallurgy involves the technologies which chemically dissolve or leach to eventually extract metals. pyrometallurgy involves melting or other thermal treatment of ores to concentrate or extract metals.

Video International Precious Metals Institute ( IPMI ) Refine Precious Metals - Step Concentration 

See Also : 

Video How To Refine Precious Metals - Hydrometallurgy

Poisoned By Gold Rush In Colombia

Traditional mining in Colombia
Poisoned by GOLD RUSH It is to Remedios, a traditional mining town in the region of Antioquia, a rich gold country in northern Colombia.

Mining has always been one of the main activities of the region, but in recent years the sector is booming.

A recent increase in the value of gold and the government's fight against coca cultivation led to unprecedented demand for the precious ore.

Today, gold is quickly becoming the new cocaine in Colombia. The explosion flooded the country of cash, sex, alcohol and debauchery.

But the exposure of children to mercury cheap technology to extract gold, had a negative impact.

In particular, many children find them selves powerless today. There is a problem of impotence in the region? It is a problem. It is usually attributed to mercury pollution in the region.

To meet the growing demand for gold, the number of underground mines exploded. Today, mercury pollution has become a serious problem in this region of Colombia. The mines destroy the jungle, dry rivers, and discharge of harmful pollutants in nature.

Today, about 80 percent of the gold mined in Colombia comes from these mines some of which help finance the guerrillas, and criminal or paramilitary groups.

It is a disputed territory for many years, and armed rebel groups trying to control the territory, because, of course, the wealth of natural. Illegal mining operations bring in about $ 2.

Traditional mining in Colombia
Gold grain for traditional mining in Colombia
5 billion a year, and are now more profitable than cocaine trade for Colombian armed groups, managing or impose farms.

Per kilo, the value of gold is greater than that of cocaine, and as it is a legal product, it is easier to sell. This is why young people like Didier Perea flock to the mines in the hope of making a fortune. 

Recently it became a business because there are mines where you start working and the salary minimum is very good.

Addict ? Yes, because sometimes we find gold, you take a barrel, washed and wins up to 5 million Colombian pesos (1,485 euros) for this piece, so inevitably it motivates us, and It gradually becomes addicted.

In this type of small-scale operations, Minors use mercury to separate gold from other materials. They are in constant contact with such a toxic material that even low levels of exposure can damage the nervous system.

Chronic mercury poisoning can cause organ failure and even death. For over 100 years this method is banned in the United States. 

The Products Of Gold Ore

 Gold within rock
Gold is produced from both primary and secondary sources , primary sources are mining activities and these take a variety of forms hard rock underground mining, open pit mining and dredging in the ocean lakes rivers and streams. Secondary sources refer to materials coming from recycled scrap metal scrap jewelry scrap electronic scrap spent sputtering targets and many others gold

From primary remaining sources in the american prospect is panning for both flakes and small nuggets in Riverbend ancient cultures occasionally found gold and silver and riverbeds also low deposit work gold is found within rock and placer deposits is where erosion has washed down from the hills and outcroppings of metal near the surface this lustrous and ductile.

Small nuggets from river
Metal was sought after throughout the centuries by almost all cultures metal jewelry artwork and eventually finding a place as monetary currency the majority of gold is mine from mineral deposits where it's found mixed with other metals and minerals these deposits are called or the ancient

Egyptians Greeks and Romans all developed underground mining operations a low deposits more than 2,000 years ago many of these vines especially in eastern europe greece turkey and other middle eastern countries are still economically viable and in production

Today pores are concentrated in veins which were formed millions of years ago deep under the earth surface. These veins were formed from hot water rising from hot magma the metal slowly precipitated out along these complex veins

Mines will also have side streams of gold and silver production which help. Their bottom line approximately twenty percent of gold is produced as a byproduct of copper and silver mining operations.
Following numerous paths approximately 70 million ounces of gold our mind each year the highest concentrations of gold found in North and South America are on both sides of the mountain ranges that run the length of these regions the sierra nevada in north america and the Andes in South America gold and silver are almost universally found in conjunction with copper deposits virtually all copper

Video  The Products Of Gold Ore

Job Vacancy In Oceana Gold Corporation


Oceana Gold Corporation currently has opened the opportunity for you career opportunities and work in mines. OceanaGold Corporation is a producer of gold and copper metals multinational which operates in New Zealand, Philippines,and United States.

The mainstay of the company's operations is the Didipio mine which is located in  the northern Philippines and has a current mine life to 2030 In New Zealand, OceanaGold operates the country’s largest gold operation at the Macraes Goldfield on the South Island.

If you are interested in becoming a member of the OceanaGold team, this is your career opportunities

1.  Job Vacancy IT Systems Administrator

Oceana Gold currently seeking a driven individual to join experienced and professional IT team in the position of IT Systems Administrator in Oceana Gold. Based in central Dunedin office and reporting to the IT Operations Manager, this role is primarily responsible for planning, designing, developing and implementation of information systems and ensuring breakdowns are minimised or prevented for all Oceana Gold’s operations company wide. 

You will be responsible for daily monitoring and maintenance of IT systems, system backups and restores, and monitoring IT applications for improvement or updates. This is a fantastic opportunity for an experienced IT professional to join a high performing IT team within a progressive and expanding organisation.

The successful candidate will possess:
  • At least 2 years’ experience in system administration
  • The ability to work both independently and as part of a team
More infomation Job Vacancy IT Systems Administrator : 

2. Underground Maintenance Planner

An opportunity has arisen for an experienced Maintenance Planner to join the Underground Maintenance team at our Waihi Operation. Reporting to the Underground Maintenance Superintendent you will be responsible for scheduling the short, medium and long term maintenance plans for repairs and component exchange on mobile equipment as well you will be responsible for planning cost effective maintenance and ensuring equipment availability targets are met. 

Specific duties will include but are not limited to: 
  • Timely and effective planning of maintenance and resources to maintain equipment to relevant standards.
  • Overseeing and assisting contract Supervisor/s in micro-planning major equipment maintenance overhauls
  • Chairing weekly maintenance planning meetings
  • Participate in active safety management
  • Maintaining planning and reporting systems to acceptable standard
  • Monitor costs and budgets
  • Materials, Parts and Labour requestioning 
More Information Job Underground Maintenance Planner :

The successful applicant will have a trades/maintenance qualification with relevant planning experience in mining. A full and current NZ Driver Licence with the ability to drive a manual is preferred. Excellent communication skills are crucial to your success in this role and a strong commitment to continuous improvements to fleet maintenance.

3. Underground Diesel Fitter

OceanaGold Corporation are seeking an experienced and highly motivated Diesel Fitter to join our performance orientated team at the Waihi Operation. The successful applicant will carry out preventative maintenance tasks to the required performance and safety standards as well as other general duties to support the Maintenance team.

Applicants for this role must have effective communication skills and must be capable of planning their own workload on a daily basis. In return we can offer an excellent remuneration package and the opportunity to be part of an organisation that prides itself on process and technological advancements.

At OceanaGold health and safety is paramount to the success of our day to day operations and as such we look for people who have a high regard for personal safety, fitness for duty, the safety of workmates and ensuring their work area is tidy and free of hazards.

Key criteria for this role include:
  • A relevant trade qualification
  • Previous experience in a 24 hour, continual process production industrial environment or heavy manufacturing environment is preferred
  • Full and current Driver Licence, with the ability to drive a manual vehicle
  • Practically orientated problem solving skills.
More Information Job Underground Diesel Fitter :

If you share the same values and have what we are looking for, please apply online now via website:
Applications close Monday 16th May 2016
Applicants must be eligible to work in New Zealand or hold a valid Work Permit.

Job Vacancy Underground Mine Foreman In Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC)


Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC) constitute a company engaged in the a gold producer with a portfolio of operating mining, development and exploration of mineral resources. Oceana Gold Corporation is an emerging multinational gold and copper producer with over 24 years of operating sustainably in New Zealand and recently conducted mining operations in the Philippines and United States. 

The assets of the company are located in the South Island of New Zealand, and in the northern Philippines. OGC has three mines operating in New Zealand; Macrae’s Open Pit, Frasers underground and Reefton mines. In New Zealand Oceana Gold the largest gold operation in the country at the Macraes Goldfield in the South Island and Waihi Gold Mine in the North Island operates. OceanaGold has an unwavering commitment to the environment and the host communities in where they conduct mining operations 

Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC)  looking for an experienced Underground Mine Foreman for Waihi mining operation. Reporting to the Underground Mine Manager are responsible for coordinating the underground mining operations responsible for ensuring equipment production and use are achieved goals in a safe, cost effective and timely manner. In addition, manage service providers and mining activities are carried out in accordance with the statutory provisions 

To be successful in  Underground Mine Foreman position, the several following attributes be required
  • New Zealand A or B Grade Tunnel Manager’s Certificate of Competency (or the ability to obtain)
  • Minimum 15 years underground mining experience with exposure to mechanised development and production techniques
  • A proven track record of supervising and coordinating underground mining personnel and contractor activities
  • Extensive knowledge of the practices and techniques applied in underground mining
  • Current First Aid Certificate
  • Full and current NZ Drivers Licence
  • Strong written and verbal communication skills
In Oceana Gold health and safety for the success of daily operation of the utmost importance and as such Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC) looking for people who a high regard for personal safety, fitness for duty, the safety of their colleagues 

If you share the same values and have what they are looking for,please apply online now via website Oceana Gold Corporation (OGC)  :
Applications close Monday 16th May 2016
Applicants must be eligible to work in New Zealand or hold a valid Work Permit.

Job Vacancy Supervisor Medium Range Planning In Rio Tinto , 3/5/2016


Rio Tinto is a leading international mining and Rio tinto company requires Job Vacancy Supervisor Medium Range Planning. Rio Tinto focus is on finding, mining and processing of mineral resources in the earths in order to maximize value for shareholders. Everything is done with the future firmly in mind, so employees in Rio Tinto are rewarded with the possibility of an open, diverse culture and a work environment that is very responsible where they can go further.

Rio tinto is a diverse team of talented, promote a culture of inclusion. No matter how they may be different, and people share a common. There is a belief that the perform is more rewarding when accept differences and estimated not judged by them. They have something to contribute and all  to contribute something, and it is content that makes for a great organization and fulfilling career.

Career Opportunities In Rio Tinto

Join the Rio Tinto Oyu Tolgoi Underground Project team is a great opportunity to be part of one of the most exciting developments in copper and gold mines for several decades. The mine contains reserves and resources that make it one of the world’s largest copper-gold deposits. 

This mega project is expected to be an important contribution to the development of Mongolia Mining. As part of the team Rio Tinto Oyu Tolgoi underground project, you have the opportunity to contribute something important and and develop both personally and professionally for contribute. Rio  Tinto offer a collaborative, to form powerful environment  to achieve in success through cooperation.

Rio Tinto Oyu Tolgoi Underground Project looking for a Supervisor Medium Range Planning act as pivot between the off-shore engineering team and the site based execution team. 

 What the role entails

This role is a great opportunity to be part of a world class project in a developing country that will significantly contribute to the country’s future.  This role will be a one year fixed term based either in Mongolia on 5 days on, 2 days off FIFO roster to Oyu Tolgoi site or 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off FIFO directly from point of hire to site. Reporting to the Superintendent - Planning you will be:

  • Using your experience for establish well defined systems and processes for the medium range planning team as part of the site Management Operating System
  • Developing skill and experience within a predominantly national team comprising of direct and indirect reports
  • Demonstrating safety leadership by actively involving team members
  • Collaborating with the many workgroups involved with the project to understand interactions and minimise potential schedule disruptions
  • Working predominantly in the 1 to 3 month time range for scheduling while keeping in constant communication with the long and short range planning teams
  • Demonstrate discipline in following the requirements of the MOS and conducting regular reviews to ensure it is fit for purpose
What you will need for this role
To succeed in this role, you will have:
  • Mining Engineering degree
  • Underground hard rock mining experience
  • Significant experience in a similar planning role
  • Experience in complex underground mining situations
  • Excellent written and verbal communication skills
  • Previous supervision experience 
It will also be beneficial if you have:
  • Deswick software experience
  • Mine managers certificate/statutory certificate
  • Emerging regions experience desirable
  • Block cave or sub level caving experience 
So if this sounds like you and the opportunity you are looking for, apply now. Please note, in order to be successfully considered for this role you must complete all pre-screening questions.

For full job descriptions at Rio Tinto please visit website : 

Silver And Gold Bullion Coins


Collecting silver and gold bullion coins can be an investment, combines an insurance against market inflation and a hobby passionate a person. Accumulating silver and gold coins are the easiest way for you start to own gold and silver. Many of the bullion coin series which have multitudes of designs created with outstanding craftsmanship, so silver and gold make very desirable objects.

Since the first bullion coin published in South Africa in 1967, and then a lot of national exhibitions in the world have their own gold coins series. Very most popular the British Britannia series, from gold coins the Chinese Gold Panda Series and the American silver Eagle. 

Most silver and gold coins never used in daily trade (some gold coins such as the Krugerrand have no face value!), despite that many of the bullion coins issued today are bestowed with legal tender status in their respective country of issue, therefore making them exportable to most of the countries worldwide without being subjected to import taxes, duty or VAT.

This fact makes silver and gold coins a very appealing means for  ownership of gold and silver in private. Investors put their money into gold and silver coins to balance off  the effects of inflation because the value of the two metals have more or less since increase consistantly in the last five years. 

Then again, it is noteworthy that since many bullion coin series, especially designs change every year and have very limited edition, many  bullion coin series less than 100,000 units per year. This leads be accessed due to its rarity and collectible value in some bullion coins significantly higher prices at the top of their market gold content. 

Therefore tend investors for gold coins looking to who repetitive design during its annual issue, significant influences and command have not a high premium, such a Nice example is the South African Krugerrand coin when it first issued was to pick up the South African Krugerrand a premium no higher than 5% of its gold content, and the premium less than 1% above from in their market price of gold 

Here are some tips to keep your silver and gold coins collection to start : 

1. Are you an investor or collector? This is the major factor that will influence which coins to buy and which coins to “admire only”. Furthermore, caring for rare collectible bullion coins requires more technical expertise and some considerable investment in keeping your collection in pristine condition (but well worth the price).

2. bullion coins are not a recipient of money fast, they are kept for years, before even trading or reselling them. When your collection grew, investments in safekeeping a hidden safe in the Home or in the vault of bank deposits can also be used.

3. For starters, silver bullion coins are a nice idea as they are cheaper, so you can an impressive collection in a shorter time (and with less budget!). 

4. Concentration in the collection on a few types of gold coins as a starter, the market may be full of forgeries and fraud, read approximately the series of gold coins you gather to tell certain facts such as sizes, purity, designs of the coin as well as special issues (eg there is such a thing as a silver Krugerrand ), you can easily help to identify which is a deal and which is a scam.

5. If you buy from your local coin dealer, the first take the time to check the background your dealer , whether they are known and trusted in your area or your neighborhood?  Do they offer Fair advice and friendly service? 

6. When buying online, the best method is to start buying from auction first before going to individual shops, as auction website such as ebay have feedback system tracking the past sales of the particular seller, giving good indication on whether the seller provide good service, or whether they have sell similar items in the past and of course whether they provide good quality wares. And the large market of auction websites with numerous sellers can give comparison of the prices of a specific coin

Video Where To Buy & NOT Buy Gold & Silver

Different Types Of Mining Processes


Mining has become a controversial industry because of its “devastating” effect to the environment and the ecosystem. However, it has contributed so much to civilization that without it, we could never be where we are today in many aspects.

There are two basic methods of mining. These are the surface and the underground mining processes:

1. Surface Mining

This involves the mining of minerals located at or near the surface of the earth. This encompasses at least six processes and these are:

• Strip Mining – this involves the stripping of the earth’s surface by heavy machinery. This method is generally targeted at extracting coal or sedimentary rocks that lay near the earth’s surface.

• Placer Mining – this involves the extraction of sediments in sand or gravel. It is a simple, old-fashioned way of mining. This method is generally applicable to gold and precious gems that are carried by the flow of water.

• Mountain Top Mining – this is a new method which involves blasting of a mountain top to expose coal deposits that lie underneath the mountain crest.

• Hydraulic Mining – this is an obsolete method that involves jetting the side of a mountain or hill with high pressure water to expose gold and other precious metals.

• Dredging – it involves the removal of rocks, sand and silt underneath a body of water to expose the minerals.

Open   Pit  – this is the most common  mining  method. It involves the removal of the top layers of soil in search for gold or buried treasure. The miner digs deeper and deeper until a large,  open-pit  is created.

2. Underground Mining

This is the process in which a tunnel is made into the earth to find the mineral ore. The mining operation is usually performed with the use of underground mining equipment. Underground mining is done through the following methods:

• Slope Mining – it involves the creation of slopes into the ground in order to reach the ore or mineral deposit. This process is generally applied in coal mining.

• Hard rock – this method uses dynamite or giant drills to create large, deep tunnels. The miners support the tunnels with pillars to prevent them from collapsing. This is a large-scale mining process and is usually applied in the extraction of large copper, tin, lead, gold or silver deposits.

• Drift mining – this method is applicable only when the target mineral is accessible from the side of a mountain. It involves the creation of a tunnel that’s slightly lower than the target mineral. The gravity makes the deposit fall to the tunnel where miners can collect them.

• Shaft method – this involves the creation of a vertical passageway that goes deep down underground where the deposit is located. Because of the depth, miners are brought in and out of the  pit  with elevators.

• Borehole method – this involves the use of a large drill and high pressure water to eject the target mineral.

These are the basic methods used in the extraction of common minerals. There are more complex systems, but still, they are based on these fundamental processes.

Why To Invest In Silver


Is silver a good investment? The answer is ‘yes’. Like gold, silver is a safe investment that offers an effective value against inflation and adverse economic conditions, apart from wealth creation.

Unlike currencies, the value of silver does not fall in real terms any time. However, before decide on how to ways invest in silver or where to buy silver, we should know why to invest in silver.

Here’s a look at the pros and cons of silver investing:

 Advantages For Silver

1. Returns. 
Though silver is almost 17 times more abundant in nature than gold, however silver it is more scarce in circulation. According to some estimates, the combined sovereign gold holdings by various treasuries in the world are more than the total mined silver available.

Historically, silver has outperformed gold in terms of returns and it is truer in present times than ever before. Over the last two decades, the returns on silver have been almost three times that of gold.  Since 2009, silver price has increased 87% with over 630% returns, while gold price increased 30% with over 250% returns.

 2. Demand. 
The demand for silver is not driven by economic condition alone. It has a large use in industry and in recent years that has been the major factor for silver’s price rally. Currently, almost half of the total demand for silver is industrial.

Most of the silver that is used in industry cannot be extracted and recycled due to various reasons, implying that silver is being ‘consumed’ in manufacturing. Such demand is likely to continue pushing silver higher in the future.

3. Affordability.
Known as ‘poor man’s gold’, silver is a highly affordable precious metal for all practical purposes. The gold to silver ratio is one of the most watched metrics in the precious metals area. This ratio has been fluctuating over years.

Even at current silver peaks the ratio stands at around 31, indicating that gold price is around 31 times that of silver. Therefore, affordability combined with returns makes silver a winning investment option.

4. Liquidity
Like gold, silver has high liquidity and is easily traded in various forms all over the world. In the long term, silver was used as a currency in different parts of the world and enjoys similar recognition even today.

5. Alternatives.
There are various types of investments in silver that you can choose as per your requirements. These include bullion coins, collector’s coins, bars, silver rounds, jewelry, junk silver, scrape, mutual funds, Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), futures, options, certificates, and silver accounts.


1. Bulk
Due to its low pricing, an equivalent amount of investment in silver is much heavier and requires more storage space than gold. This adds to transportation, insurance and storage costs for silver.

2. Maintenance.
Silver gets oxidized readily, losing its sheen to a blackened appearance. Some of the premium that is paid at the time of buying a piece of silver is related to its appearance. May lose out on such premium on your tarnished holdings at the time of selling.

Therefore, it is very important to retain your physical silver in pristine condition. Bullion coins and certain numismatic coins are often available in protective, covering that protects them from oxidation. However, silver bars are exposed and face a greater risk of tarnishing.

3. Taxation.
Unlike gold, silver is subject to taxation in most of the nations, either as capital gains tax or as value added tax. The tax rates in various countries range between 7% and 22%.

4. Instrument-specific drawbacks.
Individual forms of silver investments have different types of disadvantages. For instance, futures are subject to inherent riskiness of the metal and markets. Another example is jewelry, which is unprofitable because its price includes crafting cost that fetch no value at the time of sale.

This is Video How to invest in silver  

 Related video

- High Profits Investing In Gold
- The Real Gold Mine

High Profits Investing In Gold


Investing in gold is becoming increasingly popular due to the high cost on the market today. There are three ways that are most common to invest in gold and all three have pros and cons. It is important, just like making any investment, carefully weigh options and determine exactly what the best .

No matter what choice, the ultimate goal is to make money and have made a wise investment. Some ways are very familiar and require any amount of money while others require large investments and are not so familiar.

The first and most common way of investing in gold is to actually buy gold. This can be anything from buying gold bars, coins, jewelry and ingots. Many people associate this with investing in gold and it can be done with virtually any amount of money.

The thing to remember about this type of investment is that people will only buy the amount that they are willing to spend. This ultimately means that the price of gold can fluctuate dramatically either way at any given time. It is important to buy at the right time so that when the market value of gold goes up, can make money and prove made a good investment.

The second option of investing in gold is to buy it on contract. This means that own the gold but do not have to physically store it someplace safe. Will only need to keep track of the paper on which the contract is written.

With this option it is important to determine which are more comfortable with: either holding the gold physically in hand or paying to store it at a bank in their vault or buying it on contract and believing that the actual gold really does exist somewhere.

Finally, when in investing in gold,  can literally buy the mining company. With this option will buy shares in the gold mining company and whatever gold they find while mining will get a percentage of it in the end.

It is important to make sure that are buying shares in a mining company which only mines gold so that can have the best return on investment.

This is video Tips for investing in gold

Read Also 

- The Real Gold Mine

Semi Autogenous Grinding Mill In Mining ( SAG Mill Video )


SAG mill in the mining constitute equipment used in the mining industry for grinding material, it uses steel balls next to large rocks to grind. SAG is an acronym for Semi Autogenous Grinding Mill and the SAG mills use minimum ball charge 6-15%. It has a large diameter and short length in the equipment SAG. 

The liner is made of wear-resistant steel and provided with lifters, which when the mill rotates can in increasing the load support. The load consists of dry ore, steel balls and water, which occupies 30% of the volume. 8% of this volume is steel balls. 

A SAG mill is most common used in the mining areas, especially in the mining of precious metals,  such as gold, copper, silver and nickel. The SAG mill is used in the line of industrial mining equipment designed to process, crushing, separating, or locate precious metals from coal. The SAG mill is one of the major mining equipment pieces and often requires machinery repair and maintenance.  

This is most often due to the large amount of heavy, residue bearing material being churned from grinding mill due to the Large amount. The SAG mill used plates along the inside of the drum, lift the material during rotation, causing them to fall onto each other to crushing. 

A semi-autogenous grinding mill or SAG mill is responsible for materials of Large chunks into Little pieces suitable for processing material. The SAG mill is usually part of the primary stage in the grinding process. Pieces of raw or reduced rock materials into smaller pieces for further processing or sorting. These machines are electrically driven , but changed and have been modified from powering systems over the years.

It may often be necessary to service a variety of industrial gold mining equipment, coal mining equipment, and other relevant major mining equipment. People who work in SAG mills must to understand involved in each phase of the machine repair process the intricate details, rehabilitation of mining equipment and great care. This information will necessity a trained eye and skillful hand, to ensure that the machine working properly.

SAG Mill & Maintenance

Some of the necessary services for the SAG mill machines comprise technical support during the construction and application processes for the mining equipment manufacturers. Other services include the production of parts, mining machinery repair and restoration of mining machinery. This type of equipment is extremely important for the production and economy, and it is necessary to take care when handling the equipment. Professionals should be very knowledgeable in this unit.

When machine has been shut down, or the process is problematic , so do production and profit slowed. Mining machinery maintenance and modifications keep production running at its best. SAG mill operations are no exceptions. In Specific, it is important to ensure that the lifting plates, rotating drums, mill rotators and other machine components their optimal operating functions maintained at all times by ensuring that preventive and routine maintenance completed on schedule and on time.

SAG mill mining machinery, and other mining equipment, are crucial for the mining industry. SAG mill has a far history in mining production and must be handled carefully and with caution to ensure safety and optimal production at any time. Gold-mining equipment and mining equipment are among the most waited mill types mining machinery, which requires maintenance and modification. 

Video Rubicon Minerals Corp: SAG Mill First Run Phoenix Gold Project 

The South African Gold Market


The economy of South Africa depends largely on its mining industry. It  is mines  precious metals like  gold , copper, platinum, and diamonds. The South African gold market is 120 years old. It has seen a continuous cycle of ebbs, and falls in its economic history. Like many other countries, it depended upon the London bullion market to sell its gold to the global gold market. Individual  gold   mining  companies and brokers marketed  gold  through London.

Later, The Reserve bank of South Africa took over the control of the gold market of South Africa in the early twentieth century, after the First World War ended, and used The Bank of England as its selling agent to channel gold to the London bullion market.

Later in 1968, during the Vietnam conflict, the London gold market was closed for two weeks. When it reopened, the future of the global gold market had changed forever. It had lost a number of its potential clients. The three main Swiss banks formed a Zurich gold pool, and approached The South African Reserve Bank to channel its gold. Even today, Switzerland is known to handle most of the gold produced in South Africa in the global gold market.

South Africa has the second largest gold reserves in the world. In the beginning, it contributed as much as half the total gold produced in the world. However, over a period, its  gold  production slowed down, despite the low-cost of  gold   mining  in South Africa. With the  gold  rush in California, and later in Australia,  gold   mining  companies focussed their attention to the newly discovered mines.

Gold   mining  is anyway a difficult job, and in a country like South Africa, where the geological factors make it unbearable to work, the instability of the country further hampers the growth of  gold   mining  industry. The geothermal temperature is more than 50 degree Celsius.

It needs tons and tons of water to be pumped in to cool the inner temperature. Moreover, it requires massive amounts of dynamite, and Cyanide to blast the  mines , and extract  gold  from there. The refining process of course needs uninterrupted power supply.

So altogether, the cost of  mining  and  processing  raw  gold  is extravagant for the government. With its limited resources, and insufficient power supply, coupled with the civil wars, and political instability, it has failed to deliver a prospective gold market. Rand, the South African currency is constantly losing its value against other currencies. The  gold  market has not yet shown signs of recovery, but the government is initiating projects like thermal power stations to generate more electricity for the  gold   mines  to increase their production by 2010.

Related Article :

- History Of Gold Mining In South Africa
- Gold Mining Industry In South Africa


Gold Mining In Balkan Region ( Gold Mining In Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo )


Antique gold mining in the Balkan region is well documented begins in the middle ages, but started the modern mining, especially in the last 50 years. Most of this mining was carried out in the region, which covers the three countries; Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo. Anders mined as gold at the other in the region include metals, zinc, copper and lead. 

The civil war in the former Yugoslavia,  in 1991st  in the region gold mining which heavily affected. But with the finish of the war in the spring of 2000 and gaining independence both Macedonia and Kosovo from Yugoslavia and Serbia respectively the mining sector in these countries has begun to grow again.

A number of foreign investors have been awarded mining concessions for gold and this is expected to increase the country to promote gold production. 

Gold Mining In Albania

Unlike the other major gold mined in Albania Minerals include petroleum, coal and natural gas from those found most in the southwestern regions of the country. The country is also contain, copper, cobalt, nickel, dolomite, asbestos, silver, bauxite and kaolin, and other things. 

There has been in the gold mining industry in the recent past, increased investment, and this is probably the country to increase the production of gold. Some of the major players in the gold sector of the country include the Arian resources Perlat copper-gold-silver-cobalt mine is located in Puke district Albania possesses. This mine is part of a 290 hectare exploration license, which runs for 25 years. The mine produces copper, gold, silver and cobalt. 

Another important player in the gold mining sector in the country is the Tirex Resources, owns the mineral rights to the Mirdita district. The company initially received an exploration license for copper and zinc, but shown exploration activities have the presence of high grade gold and silver in the region. The company now

Gold Mining In Macedonia

Macedonia is also well equipped with mineral resources containing gold, lead, copper, silver and cadmium among others. Gold mining in Macedonia dates back to the time of Alexander the Great, where gold was mined used to finance and the running of the Roman Empire. Gold mining has continued to the present day, and occupies an important place in the country’s economy. After years of repressed production, the country has taken on a program in its mining sector to rekindle.  

Today there are several gold projects in the country. These include the Ilovica gold-copper project, which is the first of its greenfield development in the country. The project is owned by Euromax Resources and covers Approximately 500 hectares in a 1,500 ha concession area. Construction of the mine in 2016 with mining declared expected in 2018 to Start 

Another gold mine in the country is the Buchim copper mine, the open pit mine one that gold, silver and copper. The mine was founded in 1979 and is operated by the Solway Industries owned and. The ore is mined from Approximately 0.3 g / t gold. Unlike the two projects mentioned above there are several other gold mining projects still in the research. These include two prospecting concessions and two exploration licenses owned by Reservoir Minerals.  

Gold Mining in Kosovo 

Kosovo is another mineral Wealthy country in the Balkans. Gold in Kosovo is often accompany other minerals such as zinc, copper and lead found, among other things, although some clear alluvial gold reserves along rivers found. For many years, gold in Kosovo mine was mined mainly in Artana that the gold mine with the highest gold content through out Yugoslavia was operated 1939-1989 time. Before its closure, the mine had produced approximately 11.9 tons of gold.

Today is the Large gold mine in Kosovo is the Trepza Mine in Malisevo in wider circle of Prizren. The mine is estimated at a 1.18g / t gold containing a gold reserve of Approximately 0 million tons. This corresponds to Approximately 142 tonnes of gold.  

There are also several projects under exploration. These include the Slivovo exploration. A joint venture between the government and the Avrupa resource that is a subsidiary of Bymecut International Ltd of Australia The exploration was focused on the Peshter gussan block that has shown signs of gold deposits. Avrupa also holds a second exploration license for the Meovit area next to the Ancient Artana Goldmine

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- Gold Mining In Azerbaijan
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Precious Metal Recovery ( Video )


Precious Metal Recovery refers to the reclaiming of precious metals from specific scrap materials. Many precious metal recovery services employ state of the art refining techniques, for extracting metals such as gold, silver and platinum etc.

These processes can extract precious non-ferrous-metals from industrial scraps, wires tubes and dishoarded bars. Recovery services are used in a variety of industries including, aerospace, jewelry, medical and the semi-conductor and printed circuit board industries.

These services may also include reducing the metal lots to assaying bars for evaluation, by utilizing thermal processes. Metal refining capabilities can include, melting and thermal reduction through incineration.

Recovery refers to the separation of precious metals from noble-metalliferous materials, some of these materials may include catalysts such as electronic assemblies or printed circuit boards. 

To isolate or remove the metals, procedures such as hydrolysis or pyrolysis are commonly employed. With hydrolysis, the noble-metalliferous materials can be dissolved in hydrochloric acid and chlorine gas solution, or dissolved in Aqua regia, which consists of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. 

In the procedure known as pyrolysis the precious metals are removed by solidifying in a melt to become cinder, and then oxidized. Some metals may be reduced directly with a gas or salt or nitro hydrate connection.

This is followed by various cleaning stages or are recrystallized, and the metals can then be separated from the salt by calcination. These precious metal materials are first hydrolyzed and then thermally prepared (pyrolysed) thereafter. The recycling product is removed and put several times through the cycle.

Precious metal recovery services are companies that purchase materials such as printed circuit boards, old wires, and industrial scraps that contain various precious metals such as :

o Gold & Silver

o Platinum

o Nickel & Tin

o Rhodium

o Palladium

o Copper & Bronze

These materials are then put through various processes to extract the precious metals from them. This makes good economical and environmental sense.

These services may also include buying old jewelry, and other valuable scrap metals such as :

o Brass

o Copper

o Bronze

o Aluminium

o Phosphor Bronze

These metals can then be smelted down and reused, thus saving valuable resources.

This is Video from Precious Metal Analysis - Instrumental Methods for Gold, Silver, Platinum, Palladium and other PGMs

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Gold Mining In Armenia

Gold mining and the mining industry in common is very important for the economy of Armenia, contributing Approximately one half of its total exports. The main mineral is molybdenum but Armenia is also to have significant gold reserves located in its territory. The country has Approximately 13 operational gold and gold polymetallic mines. There are also several other deposits still in development. This means that the country still has to be considered a great potential for gold investors. 

Armenia Gold mines
Armenia has a history of gold mining that goes back many centuries. Most of the early gold mining was done in the early years, to finance the construction of religious locks in early Asia. During the Soviet era, the country had a modest gold sector with the production in 1989 slightly more than two tons of gold. 

The gold production after the split from the Union in 1991. The country went to below 1000 kg in 1995. by a depression, but has recovered and now gold is one of the main exports. The growth of gold production in recent years has been adopted by the legal reforms in 2012 in collaboration with the International Finance Corp (IFC), reviewed the government of Armenia and adopted its new mining law in 2012 so that further opening Aided was its mining sector. This has seen an increase in domestic gold production in recent years. The new mining laws Permit a two-tier licensing structure that will Aid the industry attract investment.

Gold Mining In Armenia

The mining sector to invest, a 4% tax on gross income, 12.5% ​​royalties based on the result. All these royalties are important deductions that arrive before a 20% corporate tax and the interest will be charged.

The gold mining in Armenia has more foreign investment. The first Dynasty Mines, which is registered in Canada, was the first foreign company to invest in the country’s gold sector. In 1997, the First Dynasty Mines bought a stake in the Ararat Gold Mining Plant. The plant was later converted to the Ararat Gold Recovery Company, before it was sold to GeoProMining Gold in 2007. 

Geo ProMining Gold is the largest gold mining company in Armenia is operating both the Ararat gold recovery plant and Zod (Sotk) mines , The company reconstructs the gold processing plant at Zod mines in 2013 to use a new technology Albion. This technology was developed by the Australian company Xstrata Technology and has been applied for the first time in the Dominican Republic. Armenia is now in the world to apply the second country. The Albion technology enables the company to simultaneously process different types of ores. This is expected to contribute to Approximately 4.6 tonnes per year gold production from the mine to.

Another important player in the gold sector of the country is the Lydian international, another Canadian gold mining company. The company owns and operates the Amulsar gold mine open pit, which is located in southern Armenia. The company has its major discovery in 2006 and the development of the mine in 2012 with production in 2015.

The Amulser gold deposit is estimated that Approximately 2.3 million ounces of gold reserves at 0.8 g / t and approximately 9.98 million ounces of silver contained begun starting in a content of Approximately 3.4 g / t. It is estimated to produce the gold mine Approximately 6.25 tons of gold per year for 10 years. 

Another major player in the Armenian gold mining the Dundee Precious Metals Inc., through its subsidiary Deno Gold, which owns the Deno Gold Project in southern Armenia and operates. The project is expected to comprise around 400,000 tons of polymetallic gold and silver ore. The company is also working on the shahemyan deposits still in Deno Gold Project. 

Video Gold Mining In Armenia And Mining Industry Today

Precious Metal Refiners Purify Gold ( Video )


Throughout the world there are mines that are extracting precious metals out of the ground and sending them to gold refiners where they can be purified. Taking the lumps of rock and ore that are mixed together in veins the precious metal refiners are able to extract the gold from the rest of the rock by melting it down.

Once in a liquid form the gold can be poured and cast into ingots or molded to form chains and other jewelry. By superheating the raw minerals to their boiling point gold refiners are able separate the rock and purify the precious metal to its full glory.

As gold is not always as shiny and brilliant when it is unearthed as it is once it has been refined most people do not recognize the valuable mineral if they were to stumble upon it while hiking. Running in veins through the rock the precious ore is mixed with all kinds of material that has to be separated and sifted before the gold receives its luster.

In many instances only the dull yellow tint of a rock reveals the gold that is hidden beneath the earth. Through the process of refining the dirt and other minerals fall away until all that remains in pure gold. However, most of the minerals that are surrounding the vein of gold contain other precious metals refiners can use in their work. Platinum, palladium, rhodium and silver can be found alongside the gold 

Gold Mining In Eritrea Africa


Eritrea is one of the developing countries in the production of gold in Africa. Having gained its independence in 1992, the country is relatively young compared to other African countries. Eritrea has worked its natural resources for some time and now several projects to be developed. It is expected that approximately four major mines will be operational in 2018.

The country has only a commercial gold mine, mined with most of its gold from Little artisanal miners. Nearly all of the Large gold deposits remain intact.

Eritrea has a Far history of gold mining. Early gold mines in the country were artisanal miners, mined gold from gold deposits along the route of the Red Sea, especially around the Arabian Nubian Shield. As part of Empire of Ethiopia.This country never had the influence of white colonialists and so most of its resources have been discovered and mined by the locals.

The civil war with Ethiopia which led in 1992 for the independence of the country disrupted and also most of the mining activities in the country, and this could be pointed out as the main reason why the country, AEOS mining sector is the least developed.

The government in recent years has been hand in hand with foreign investors to set up and operate a strong gold mining in the country . Most of these companies are involved in exploration activities in several places are already working to develop various gold deposits. Some of the major international players in the country, AEOS gold sector include:

Junior Sub-Sahara Resources

This is an Australian company that owns Approximately 80% in three main exploration licenses in Eritrea. The company has rights to the Dabarwa block, Adi Nefas block and Medrizien block which covers Approximately 1,200km2. These are very promising grounds around the country, AEOS capital Asmara. The company is also working on developing and mining the Zara gold project, after 70% of the project of Dragon Mining NL 2003

The company recorded success in its gold projects to Asmara with significant gold mineralization having been discovered the ancient plant to the Woki Duba and Medrizien sites. Several other minerals such as zinc, have found lead sulphides and copper also in major exploration sites.

Rift These Resources
is another major gold mining companies in Eritrea. The company has been active in the last few years in gold and some other base metal exploration in several places within the country. Its principal gold project is the Adi Nefas project is located north of Asmara. Today that is projected was Approximately 4.4 g / t grading and Approximately 165 g / t silver to have appreciated. Other major projects that the company owns include Nefasit mount Subab project Tekeze field gold project and the Kefina project. The company also owns Approximately 40% of the shares in Anglo American, AEOS Augaro Gold Project.

Nevsun Resources Ltd

This is an important Africa focused gold mining company . The company has four exploration licenses on a project that covers over 1,188km2 in Augaro area. The company also owns 60% in the Bisha Mining Company with the remaining shares by the Eritrean National Mining Corporation (ENAMCO) is owned. The company mines gold, copper and zinc from several mines within the country.

Sanu Resources Inc.

This is another major gold mining companies with an interest in Eritrea, AEOS gold sector. The company grew out of the British Virginia Island and has exploration and mining licenses for Kerkebet and Gieba regions in the northern parts of the country.

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